Category Archives: Diseases

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Peripheral vascular disease denotes disorders of peripheral vessels including arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and lymphatics (Box Peripheral Vascular Diseases). Vascular lesions may result from primary vascular pathology or occur secondary to conditions originating in unrelated tissues or organ systems (Box Causes of Peripheral Lymphatic Disorders). Resultant conditions may remain asymptomatic with little or no effect… Read More »

Clinical Disorders Frequently Associated With Thromboembolic Disease

Hypercoagulable States Many systemic and metabolic diseases are associated with an increased risk of arterial or venous thrombosis andTE. Primary hypercoagulable states refer to congenital abnormalities increasing the risk for thrombosis. Primary hypercoagulable states remain poorly characterized and are infrequently recognized in animals. Secondary hypercoagulable states refer to risk factors that promote the development of… Read More »

Therapy Of Thromboembolic Disease

The management of primary diseases resulting in the development of thromboembolism is discussed in related posts throughout this textbook. Therapy of thromboembolism should be directed toward the underlying disorder whenever possible. Therapeutic strategies for managing thromboembolism include short-term systemic anticoagulation and fibrinolysis followed by long-term antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of rethrombosis.… Read More »

Vascular Diseases

Diseases Of Arteries Feline Ischemic Encephalopathy Feline ischemic encephalopathy (FIE) results in cerebral ischemic necrosis. Feline ischemic encephalopathy occurs in male and female cats of all ages and is more prevalent in the summer months. The cause of FIE is uncertain. Preliminary evidence suggests Cuterebra infection as a potential cause in some cases. Clinical pathology… Read More »

Diseases Of Arteries

Occlusive Arterial Diseases Arterial occlusion refers to the interruption of blood flow within an artery and most commonly results from trauma, thrombi, emboli, arteritis, degenerative lesions such as atherosclerosis, and factors associated with endothelial dysfunction or injury. Arterial thrombosis requires one or more inciting local or systemic conditions: (1) vascular endothelial damage, (2) sluggish blood… Read More »

Vasculitis and Angiitis

The terms vasculitis and angiitis refer to the pathologic syndrome that is characterized by vascular inflammation and necrosis. Although there have been many reported causes of vasculitis, only a few histologic manifestations of the disease have been diagnosed. Vasculitis can occur in toxic, immune-mediated, infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. Blood vessels of any type in… Read More »


Atherosclerosis denotes inner arterial wall thickening in association with lipid deposition. Affected large coronary arteries often appear grossly thickened, yellow-white, and may have narrowed lumina. Histologically, deposits of plaque containing cholesterol, lipoid material, focal calcification, and lipophages thicken the inner sections of arterial wall (intima and inner media). There can be widespread involvement of arteries… Read More »

Arteriovenous Fistulas (Arteriovenous Malformations)

Arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal communication between an artery and vein bypassing the capillary network. The true incidence is unknown, although A-V fistulas are reported uncommonly in dogs and rarely in cats. Centrally located anomalies may occur between the cardiac chambers (e.g. ventricular septal defect) or between the great vessels (e.g. aorticopulmonary window, patent ductus… Read More »

Diseases of Veins

Diseases of the venous system frequently cause minor clinical problems, despite the fact that veins are commonly affected by or involved in trauma, TE, edema, local inflammation, and septic processes. Many conditions, however, often go unrecognized. Venous disorders include traumatic injuries, superficial and deep phlebitis and thrombosis (thrombophlebitis), catheter embolization, aneurysms, venous compression syndromes, varices,… Read More »

Diseases of the Peripheral Lymphatics

The lymphatic system plays a critical role in regulating body fluid volume and immune function. Lymphatics originate within the interstitium as specialized endothelial-lined capillaries transporting fluid, solutes, and macromolecular particles back into the venous system. Fluid, protein, cells, and macro-molecular particles from the interstitial space empty into the initial lymphatics composed of a series of… Read More »