Category Archives: Veterinary Dictionary


Parenteral administration of medicines may be hypodermic or subcutaneous (SC), intraarticular (into a joint), intradermal, intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV — into a vein) intraperitoneal (into the abdominal cavity), epidural, or subconjunctival (beneath the eyelid). Precautions must be taken against the introduction of bacteria, dirt, etc. The hair should be clipped away at the site of… Read More »


Scientifically, this term is now applied only to diseases caused by a myxovirus. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was much exercised as to what happens to the virus of human influenza between epidemics. It has long been known that there is a relationship between this disease and swine influenza. The human influenza virus (type A)… Read More »


Inability of the female or male to reproduce. Insidious but great losses are directly due to failure to breed on the part of otherwise promising animals. The immediate loss to the individual owner of livestock is not so apparent as with certain specific diseases, but it is infinitely greater than the loss accruing from any… Read More »

E. Coli

Escherichia coli, formerly known as Bacillus coli, is a normal inhabitant of the alimentary canal in most mammals. This bacterial family is a large one, comprising many differing serotypes which can be differentiated in the laboratory by means of the agglutination test. Only a few serotypes cause disease. However, E. coli infections can be severe… Read More »


A contagious skin disease caused by the growth of certain fungi, which live either upon the surface of the skin or in the hairs of the areas affected. Ringworm may affect any of the domesticated animals, but it is probably commonest in young store cattle when they are enclosed in buildings during winter, and in… Read More »


In order to examine an animal thoroughly for signs of injury or disease, in order to carry out inoculations, or even to administer an anaesthetic, some form of restraint is often necessary. The introduction of effective tranquillisers and sedatives facilitated the handling of horses, cattle and small animals, and may assist or replace the use… Read More »


Most cases result from the poison being swallowed. In a few instances poison may be taken in through a wound of the skin, or even through the unbroken skin, e.g. phenol preparations. Malicious poisoning is most frequently carried out against dogs and cats, although horses and ruminants also sometimes suffer. The use of poison to… Read More »


Pneumonia may be defined as inflammation of lung tissue. Pneumonias have been classified in various ways, e.g. according to the area or tissue involved, or according to lesions, or causes. Lobar pneumonia is that in which a whole lobe is involved; in lobular pneumonia the inflammation is less localised and more patchy. Broncho-pneumonia is that… Read More »


Substances incorporated in a premix added to animals’ feed, often for a purpose other than nutrition. They are mainly growth promoters, enhancers of feed conversion, or, commonly, used to provide vitami ns or minerals necessary for a healthy diet. In addition to minerals and vitamins, permitted additives include certain ANTHELMINTICS and and coccidiostats for the… Read More »

Addison’s Disease (Hypoadrenacortism)

Addison’s disease (hypoadrenacortism) is caused by failure of the ADRENAL GLANDS to produce adequate amounts of corticosteroids. It may be caused by congenital defects in, injury to, or disease of the cortex of the gland, when it is known as primary hypoadrenocorticism. Secondary hypoadrenocorticism results from excessive or prolonged dosage of an animal with cortisone… Read More »