Category Archives: Veterinary Drugs

Tolazine (Tolazoline HCl) Injection

TOLAZOLINE HCL (Tolazine) ALPHA- ADRENERGIC BLOCKER Highlights of Prescribing Information Alpha-adrenergic blocker used primarily as a reversal agent for xylazine Contraindications: Horses exhibiting signs of stress, debilitation, cardiac disease, sympathetic blockage, hypovolemia or shock, hypersensitivity, or with coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease Adverse Effects: HORSES: Transient tachycardia; peripheral vasodilatation presenting as sweating & injected mucous… Read More »

Tylosin Injection: 50 mg/mL, 200 mg/mL

MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTIC Highlights of Prescribing Information Macrolide antibiotic related to erythromycin, used primarily in cattle & swine; sometimes used orally in cats/dogs for chronic colitis Contraindications: hypersensitivity to it or other macrolide antibiotics; probably contraindicated in horses Adverse Effects: Pain & local reactions after IM injection, GI upset (anorexia, & diarrhea). May cause severe diarrheas… Read More »


Acepromazine Maleate (Promace) Chemical Compound: 2-Acetyl-10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) phenothiazine hydrogen maleate DEA Classification: Not a controlled substance Preparations: Generally available in 5-, 10-, 25-mg tablets and 10 mg/ml injectable forms Clinical Pharmacology Acepromazine is a low-potency phenothiazine neuroleptic agent that blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors and increases the turnover rate of dopamine. Acepromazine has a depressant effect on… Read More »


Antipsychotics are used to treat most forms of psychosis, including schizophrenia, in humans. They do not have the same significance in animal behavior therapy and are usually most appropriately used on a short-term, intermittent basis. The first antipsychotic, chlorpromazine, was developed in 1950. Individual antipsychotic drugs show a wide range of physiological effects, resulting in… Read More »

Drugs Acting On The Reproductive System

Drugs used to promote gonadal function Sex hormones Prostaglandins Myometrial stimulants Myometrial relaxants Prolactin antagonists Non-hormonal abortificants Drugs for uterine infections Many drugs are used at different stages of the oestrous cycle to manage the response of the reproductive system; these are summarised in Table Drags affecting the reproductive system. Table Drags affecting the reproductive… Read More »


Chorionic gonadotrophin (human chorionic gonadotrophin, hCG) is a complex glycoprotein excreted in the urine of women during pregnancy. It has a similar effect to luteinising hormone (LH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in both males and females. In veterinary practice, it is used to supplement or replace luteinising hormone in cases of ovulation failure… Read More »

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormones

Endogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide secreted by the hypothalamus. Gonadotrophin releasing-hormone causes release of both LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Fertirelin and gonadorelin are synthetic forms of GnRH. Buserelin and lecirelin are synthetic analogues of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in which specific amino acid substitutions have been made in their molecular structure,… Read More »

Sex hormones

Oestrogens Oestrogens are responsible physiologically for initiating behavioural signs of oestrus, preparing the female reproductive tract for fertilisation and developing the secretory tissue of the mammary gland. They also have anabolic activity. Oestrogens are used in the treatment of misalliance in the bitch. They act by inhibiting the transport of the fertilised ova down the… Read More »


Progestogens are steroids that mimic the effects of progesterone and thus prepare and maintain the female reproductive tract for implantation and pregnancy. They cause development of the mammary glands to the point of lactation. Progestogens exert a negative feedback on the hypothalmic-pituitary axis suppressing the secretion of gonadotrophins, and thereby cyclical ovarian activity, which normally… Read More »


Testosterone esters and methyltestosterone promote and maintain primary and secondary anatomical, physiological, and psychological male sexual characteristics. Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. In the female, they can be used to exert a negative feedback effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis thereby reducing gonadotrophin secretion. Although androgens are used in the treatment of deficient libido… Read More »