Category Archives: Veterinary Procedures

Administration Techniques For Medications And Fluids

Oral Administration: Tablets and Capsules — Canine Patient Preparation None required. Technique The simplest method of administering tablets or capsules to dogs is to hide the medication as bait in food. Offer small portions of unbaited cheese, meat, or some favorite food to the dog initially. Then offer one portion that includes the medication. Pill… Read More »

Oral Administration: Liquids

Without a Stomach Tube Patient Preparation None required. Technique is appropriate for owners to perform at home. Technique Small amounts of liquid medicine can be given successfully to dogs and cats by pulling the commissure of the lip out to form a pocket (). Deposit the liquid medication into the “cheek pouch,” where it subsequently… Read More »

Topical Administration

Ocular Patient Preparation None required. Technique The usual methods of applying medication directly to the eyes include liquid (drops) and ointments. The route and frequency of medication depend on the disease being treated. Liquids and ointments are appropriate for owner administration. Liquid medications (usually 1 or 2 drops) can be applied directly to the cornea.… Read More »

Subcutaneous Injection

Technique Dogs and cats have abundant loose alveolar tissue and easily can accommodate large volumes of material in this subcutaneous space. The dorsal neck is seldom used for subcutaneous injections because the skin is somewhat more sensitive, causing some patients to move abruptly during administration. A wide surface area of skin and subcutaneous tissue over… Read More »

Blood Pressure Measurement: Indirect

Patient Preparation None required. Technique Generally, two techniques are used. Oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurement entails use of an automated recording system. A cuff is applied to the base of the tail or a distal limb for access to an artery. This technique generally is regarded as being most accurate in dogs. When oscillometric BP… Read More »

Bacterial Culture

In previous editions of this book, methods of preparing and using selective culture media as well as identifying specific isolates was described. However, technologic advances in microbiology have largely replaced older methods of identifying bacterial isolates in practice. Furthermore, the diverse array of bacterial pathogens, requirements for unique culture media, the risk of sample contamination,… Read More »

Fungal Culture

Diagnostic fungal cultures depend on selection of the most appropriate culture site and proper collection technique. Fungal cultures are mostly commonly pursued in patients suspected of having superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin, and nails (dermatophytosis). Samples collected from patients suspected of having fungal infections of the nasal cavity (e.g., aspergillosis) or systemic (also… Read More »

Viral Testing

Direct Microscopic Examination Microscopic examination of fluid or tissue samples from patients suspected of having a viral infection is unlikely to contribute to the diagnosis. Because viruses are small and generally intracellular particles, neither light microscopy nor viral culture techniques are used in the practice setting. Some commercial and academic laboratories do offer electron microscopy… Read More »

Blood Collection Techniques

In most instances, a 3- to 5-mL sample of anticoagulated whole blood is adequate for routine hematology; some laboratories will accept as little as 1 mL. For routine biochemical analyses, the volume of serum requested can vary from 1 to 2 mL, depending on the number and type of tests requested. Plan ahead which samples… Read More »

Bone Marrow Aspiration

Collection of bone marrow may prove valuable in diseases of the blood in which examination of the peripheral blood reveals abnormal cells or cell counts. Conditions such as leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nonregenerative anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, leukemias, other bone marrow cancers, and infectious diseases (e.g., histoplasmosis, ehrlichiosis) may be confirmed only by assessment of bone marrow cytology.… Read More »