Schnauzer

By | 2011-08-05

Miniture & Standard Schnauzer

Origin of the dog breed: Germany

Size of dog: 12 to 15 inches 12 to 15; 35 to 40 pounds

Dogs coat: Wiry and thick

Color of dog: Black, salt and pepper

This breed is found in 3 different sizes and given 3 different breed designations. The Giant is a fine watch dog originally used to drive cattle. The Standard is known as an energetic and pleasing pet. The Miniature is an alert guard and also affectionate and obedient. It makes an ideal companion for the family. The picture is that of a miniture Schnauzer. The standard Schnauzer is

This dog breed is prone to: Cataracts; heart defects

Dog Breed Predisposition to Conditions, Diseases and Disorders

Cardiovascular conditions

Patent ductus arteriosus

• Common congenital abnormality

• Relative risk 2.2

• Females predisposed

• Miniature Schnauzers predisposed

• Mode of inheritance is polygenic

Pulmonic stenosis

• Third most frequent cause of canine congenital heart disease

• Polygenic inheritance possible

• Relative risk 4.7

• Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed

Endocardiosis

• Also known as chronic valvular disease

• Relative risk 4.4

• Increased prevalence with age

• Aetiology unknown but genetic basis likely

• Miniature Schnauzers predisposed

Sick sinus syndrome

• Middle-aged to old dogs

• Relative risk 126 in one small study and 6.9 in a larger study

• Females predisposed in this breed, at a ratio of 3:1

• Miniature Schnauzers predisposed

Dermatological conditions

Atopy (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Females probably predisposed

• Age of onset: from 6 months to 7 years

• May or may not be seasonal

Food hypersensitivity (Miniature Schnauzers)

• No age or sex predisposition reported

Superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis of Miniature Schnauzers

• Associated with the use of shampoos

• No sex predisposition

Seasonal flank alopecia

• Tends to occur in spring or autumn

Schnauzer comedo syndrome

• Affects Miniature Schnauzers

• May be inherited

Acquired aurotrichia in Miniature Schnauzers

• Uncommon

• Affects either sex

• Inheritance likely

Papilloma-virus-associatedpigmented lesions

• May have a genetic basis

• Affects Miniature Schnauzers

VitiligO

• Presumed to be hereditary

Canine subcorneal pustular dermatosis

• Miniature Schnauzers account for 40% of cases

• Very rare

• No age or sex predisposition

Follicular cyst

• No age or sex predisposition

Epidermal naevi

• Uncommon

• Affects young adult Miniature Schnauzers

• Probably inherited

Skin tumours

• See under Neoplastic conditions

Drug reactions

Sulphonamides

• Can cause cutaneous reactions

Gold

• Can cause cutaneous reactions

Shampoos

• Can cause superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis

Endocrine conditions

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI)

• One report of CDI diagnosed in three of a litter of five 7-week-old Schnauzers suggesting a possible familial basis

Hypothyroidism (Giant Schnauzers)

• One report of congenital secondary hypothyroidism due to thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency in a family of Giant Schnauzers

• Autosomal recessive mode of inheritance suggested

Hypothyroidism (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Often middle-aged (2-6 years)

Diabetes mellitus (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Usual age range: 4-14 years; peak incidence: 7-9 years

• Old entire females are predisposed

Primary hypoparathyroidism (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Uncommon condition

• Possible breed predisposition

• Occurs at any age

Gastrointestinal conditions

Congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Inheritance compatible with simple autosomal dominance or autosomal recessive inheritance with 60% penetrance

Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition

• Seen most commonly at 2-4 years of age

Vacuolar hepatopathy associated with hyperlipidaemia (Miniature Schnauzers)

• An inborn error of lipoprotein metabolism in this breed leads to hyperlipidaemia and liver disease

Congenital portosystemic shunt (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition

• Clinical signs usually seen < 1 year

Cholelithiasis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition

• Older female dogs may be predisposed

Pancreatitis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition

• May be associated with hyperlipidaemia in this breed

Selective malabsorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) (Giant Schnauzers)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested

• Signs seen at 6-12 weeks

• See also under Haematological conditions

Haematological conditions

Selective malabsorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) (Giant Schnauzers)

• Causes a non-regenerative anaemia with poikilocytosis and neutropaenia

• Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait

Primary idiopathic hyperlipidaemia (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Familial; suspected to be due to an inherited defect

Musculoskeletal conditions

Myotonia

• Affects Miniature Schnauzers

• Congenital in this breed

• Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait

Neoplastic conditions

Trichoepithelioma (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Average age reported as 9 years

Sebaceous gland tumours (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition to nodular sebaceous hyperplasia

• Seen in older dogs (average age 10 years)

Melanoma

• Breed predisposition

• Average age 8-9 years

Lipoma (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Most common in middle-aged, obese female dogs

Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition

• More common in young dogs 1-2 years of age

Melanoma of the digit

• Possible breed predisposition

• Average age 10-11 years

• More common in dogs with heavily pig-mented skin

Squamous cell carcinoma of the digit (Giant Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Older dogs

• Dogs with black coats seem to be more frequently affected

Testicular neoplasia (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Believed to be a breed at increased risk

Limbal melanoma

• Possible breed predisposition

Neurological conditions

Narcolepsy-cataplexy (Giant Schnauzers)

• Reported in this breed

• Age of clinical onset: < 1 year

Hyperlipidaemia as a cause of seizures (Minature Schnauzers)

• Familial; possibly due to an inherited defect in lipoprotein metabolism

Partial seizures (‘fly-biting’ and ‘star-gazing’ seizures in Miniature Schnauzers)

• Reported in this breed

Ocular conditions

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

• Breed predisposition

Limbal melanoma

• Possible breed predisposition

Glaucoma (Giant and Miniature Schnauzers)

• Possible breed predisposition

• Goniodysgenesis has been seen in Giant Schnauzers

Lens luxation (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Breed predisposition; autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested

• Age of onset: 3-6 years

• Glaucoma is a common sequel

Congenital hereditary cataract (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance

• Age of onset: <6 weeks

• Localisation: posterior nucleus/subcapsular cortex; may be associated with microph-thalmia and rotary nystagmus

• Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Cataract 1 (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance

• Age of onset: < 2 years

• Localisation: nucleus and suture lines; progressive with visual deficiencies possible

• Schedule 1 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Cataract 2 (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Inheritance suspected

• Age of onset: 4-6 years

• Localisation: posterior subcapsular cortex; frequently progresses to completion

Cataract 3 (Standard Schnauzer)

• Inheritance suspected

• Posterior nuclear/cortical cataracts may be congenital and progress slowly; may be associated with microcornea

• Posterior subcapsular cataracts may be seen < 1 year and progress to completion

• Posterior subcapsular cataracts may also be seen at 6 years

Cataract 4 (Giant Schnauzers)

• Inheritance suspected

• Localisation: posterior subcapsular cortex

• Age of onset: young puppy or 6-7 years; slowly progressive

• Schedule 3 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Multifocal retinal dysplasia (Giant Schnauzers)

• Congenital condition; inheritance as an autosomal recessive trait suspected

• Schedule 3 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Generalised progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA) (Giant Schnauzers)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance suspected

• Clinically apparent at 3-4 years

Generalised progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA) (photoreceptor dysplasia) (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Autosomal recessive inheritance

• Slow clinical progression; ophthalmoscopic signs not seen until 2-5 years

• Schedule 1 BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme

Micropapilla (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Congenital condition

• Seen occasionally in this breed

Optic nerve hypoplasia (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Congenital condition; not known if inherited

• Seen occasionally in this breed

Renal and urinary conditions

Familial renal disease (renal dysplasia) (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Chronic renal failure suggestive of renal dysplasia was reported in eight related dogs aged 4 months to 3 years

Urate urolithiasis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

• Average age at diagnosis is 3-6 years

• Males seem to be predisposed

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

• Average age at diagnosis is 5-12 years

• Males may be predisposed

• May be associated with absorptive hyper-calciuria

Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) urolithiasis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

• Average age at diagnosis is 2-8 years

• Females seem to be predisposed

Calcium phosphate urolithiasis (hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite) (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

• Average age at diagnosis is 7-11 years

Silica urolithiasis (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Higher incidence has been noted in this breed in some surveys

• Males seem to be predisposed

Reproductive conditions

Cryptorchidism (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Developmental defect believed to be inherited as a sex-limited, autosomal recessive trait

• Believed to be a breed at increased risk

Testicular neoplasia (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Believed to be a breed at increased risk

Male pseudohermaphroditism (Miniature Schnauzers)

• Congenital abnormality reported in this breed