Tag Archives: Atipamezole

Aspects Of Chemical Restraint

Chemical restraint is often necessary in reptile medicine to facilitate procedures from simply extracting the head of a leopard tortoise or box turtle, to enable a jugular blood sample to be performed, to coeliotomy procedures such as surgical correction of egg-binding. Before any anesthetic / sedative is administered, an assessment of the reptile patient’s health… Read More »

Avian Anesthesia: Induction of anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, rapid induction, low cost and availability. Disadvantages include the fact that recovery is often dependent on organ metabolism, potentially difficult reversal of medications in emergency situations, prolonged and sometimes traumatic recovery periods, muscle necrosis at injection sites and lack of adequate muscle relaxation with… Read More »

Induction And Maintenance Of Anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of the injectable anesthetics are that they are often easy to administer, they frequently involve minimal stress and they prevent the problems encountered with breath-holding when using gaseous induction techniques. Disadvantages include the problem of reversal for some agents, the often varying responses depending on the individual animal and the frequent… Read More »

How are the alpha2 agonists used clinically?

• Sedation: Although the alpha2 agonists are excellent agents for sedation in healthy patients, their profound cardiovascular effects generally contra-indicate their use in sicker animals, unless used at extremely low doses. The sedation provided by these drugs is much more predictable than that of acepromazine. The dose range for xylazine is 1-3 mg/kg intramuscular or… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

General anesthesia may be induced by the use of inhalational agents or, more commonly, by the use of injectable drugs. The latter are usually administered by the intravenous route, but some will also work when given intramuscularly, e.g. ketamine. Other routes may occasionally be used (e.g. rectal, intraperitoneal, transmucosal) but, in common with all other… Read More »

Triple combination anaesthesia

The so-called ‘triple combination’ (more colloquially referred to as ‘triple combo’) is widely used for provision of anaesthesia in small animal practice, particularly for cats. It comprises ketamine, medetomidine (or dexmedetomidine) and (usually) butorphanol, all mixed together in the same syringe and administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly (although it can also be used intravenously). The main… Read More »