Tag Archives: Atropine

Bradycardia

Symptomatic bradycardia results from problems of impulse generation in the sinus node and / or its conduction from the atria to the ventricles. Both of these processes are influenced by the autonomic nervous system with the parasympathetic system slowing and the sympathetic system accelerating impulse generation and conduction. Non-cardiac causes of bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is… Read More »

Aminopentamide Hydrogen Sulfate (Centrine)

Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Anticholinergic/antispasmodicfor GI indications in small animals • Typical adverse effect profile (“dry, hot, red”); potentially could cause tachycardia • Contraindicated in glaucoma; relatively contraindicated in tachycardias, heart disease, GI obstruction, etc. What Is Aminopentamide Hydrogen Sulfate Used For? The manufacturer states that the drug is indicated “in the treatment… Read More »

Alfentanil HCL (Alfenta)

Opiate Anesthetic Adjunct Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Injectable, potent opiate that may be useful for adjunctive anesthesia, particularly in cats • Marginal veterinary experience & little published data available to draw conclusions on appropriate usage in veterinary species • Dose-related respiratory & CNS depression are the most likely adverse effects seen • Dose may… Read More »

Acepromazine Maleate (PromAce, Aceproject)

Phenothiazine Sedative / Tranquilizer Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Negligible analgesic effects • Dosage may need to be reduced in debilitated or geriatric animals, those with hepatic or cardiac disease, or when combined with other agents • Inject IV slowly; do not inject into arteries • Certain dog breeds (e.g., giant breeds, sight hounds) may… Read More »

Treatment Modalities

Aerosolized drugs can be used to provide both quick relief of respiratory difficulty and long-term treatment (Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized Medications in Horses). Quick relief can be provided by short-acting β2-adrenergic agonists or anticholinergic drugs. Long-term therapy is provided by use of antiinflammatory drugs and perhaps long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »

Complications Of Burns

Infection is a serious and frequent complication of burns and must be addressed at an early stage. For the most part, normal skin commensal organisms such as Streptococcus equi var. zooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are encountered with some complicated by other gram-negative species, such as E. coli and Clostridia spp., and yeasts can… Read More »

Positive Inotropes

Agents capable of increasing cardiac contractility can improve a patient’s strength and exercise capacity, thereby potentially enhancing the pet’s quality of life. Ideally, these compounds would concurrently promote mortality benefits by improving cardiac efficiency and limiting the activation of endogenous compensatory mechanisms (with their detrimental long-term consequences). Unfortunately, to date most of the potent agents… Read More »

Aspects Of Chemical Restraint

Chemical restraint is often necessary in reptile medicine to facilitate procedures from simply extracting the head of a leopard tortoise or box turtle, to enable a jugular blood sample to be performed, to coeliotomy procedures such as surgical correction of egg-binding. Before any anesthetic / sedative is administered, an assessment of the reptile patient’s health… Read More »

Esophageal Disorders

1. What is the most common clinical sign of an esophageal disorder? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation refers to passive, retrograde movement of ingested material to a level proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter; usually this material has not reached the stomach. In most cases, regurgitation results from abnormal… Read More »