Tag Archives: Azathioprine

Canine Heartworm Disease: Complications And Specific Syndromes

Asymptomatic Heartworm Infection Most dogs with heartworm infection are asymptomatic, even though many of these have heartworm disease (radiographic and pathologic lesions). Treatment is as described previously, using melarsomine in the split-dose regimen, along with a macrolide preventative. Asymptomatic dogs may, however, become symptomatic af’er adulticidal therapy due to postadulticidal thromboembolization and lung injury (as… Read More »

Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia () results from cross-reacting antibodies that induce enhanced red blood cell removal. Autoimmune (primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia) hemolysis results from loss of self-tolerance and is relatively rare in horses. Most commonly, hemolysis results from adherence of cross-reacting antibodies to erythrocyte surface antigens (secondary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). The presence of these molecules on… Read More »

Perianal Fistula

Perianal fistula is a chronic, often debilitating disease of the perianal tissues in dogs characterized by one or, more often, multiple draining tracts surrounding the anus. Anal furunculosis, an alternate descriptor, is typically a progressive disease characterized by ulcerative, painful, malodorous lesions resulting from the associated tissue destruction and infection. In severe cases, the entire… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »

IBD

Cause of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be defined using clinical, histologic, immunologic, pathophysiologic, and genetic criteria. Clinical criteria Inflammatory bowel disease has been defined clinically as a spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders of an unknown cause that is associated with chronic inflammation of the stomach, intestine, or colon. A clinical diagnosis of… Read More »

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a collective term that describes a group of disorders characterized by persistent or recurrent gastrointestinal signs and histologic evidence of intestinal inflammation on biopsy material. The disease bears little resemblance to inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) of humans, and indiscriminate use of the term “IBD” is no more… Read More »

Chronic Gastritis

Gastritis is a common finding in dogs, with 35% of dogs investigated for chronic vomiting and 26% to 48% of asymptomatic dogs affected. The prevalence in cats has not been determined. The diagnosis of chronic gastritis is based on the histologic examination of gastric biopsies and it is usually subclassified according to histopathological changes and… Read More »

Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, And Hypoproteinemia

1. Are transfusions essential in an emergency situation? Absolutely. Transfusions are frequently needed for veterinary patients as a result of various emergency situations, including blood loss, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), clinical syndromes associated with the hypocoagulable state of malignancy and other diseases, and other hematologic abnormalities. In general, transfusions and specific blood components should be… Read More »

Herbs for Cancer: Immune Modulators

Most conventional chemotherapeutic agents are immunosuppressant and cytotoxic in nature, and they exert a variety of adverse effects that are particularly evident in cancer chemotherapy. Botanically based immunomodulators and immune stimulators are employed as supportive or adjuvant therapy to overcome the adverse effects of these agents and to restore normal health. Many of these herbs… Read More »