Tag Archives: Butorphanol tartrate

Diseases of the Throat

General Anatomy And Physiology The throat is an important, but mosdy ignored, communal area of both the gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory tracts. Anatomically it is divided into the pharynx and larynx. The pharynx is further divided into the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is located dorsal to the soft palate, between the… Read More »

Diseases of the Throat: Diagnosis

Diagnostic Imaging Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographic views of both the skull and cervical areas are indicated. Radiopaque foreign bodies can be identified that may be missed on laryngoscopy and pharyngoscopy (e.g. sewing needle embedded in soft tissues). Radiographs are also useful in identifying bony changes associated with chronic inflammation or neoplasia, identifying clues of unreported… Read More »

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Acute Therapy

Just as with dilated cardiomyopathy, cats that have respiratory distress suspected of having heart failure secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may need to be placed in an oxygen-enriched environment as soon as possible. If possible the cat should be initially evaluated by doing a cursory physical examination, taking care not to stress the patient during this… Read More »

Treatment of Systemic Arterial Thromboembolism

Euthanasia In cats that are in acute pain that have a poor prognosis due to severe cardiomyopathy, euthanasia is a humane means of dealing with the problem. Systemic throm-boembolism is often a horrible complication of cardiomyopathy, the treatment options are all relatively poor, and rethrombosis is common. Consequently, although one should not automatically give up… Read More »

Interpretation of Peritoneal Fluid Changes in Peripartum Mares

Abdominal discomfort in the peripartum mare poses a diagnostic dilemma for the equine clinician because of the difficulty in differentiating between normal uterine contractions and other sources of abdominal pain. When a periparturient mare displays abdominal discomfort she may be experiencing a reproductive problem including uterine torsion or rupture, vaginal tear involving the peritoneal cavity,… Read More »

Determination of Fetal Gender

Fetal gender determination has been incorporated into the management programs of many breeding farms. Depending on the sire or the dam, the fetal gender may affect the value of the fetus and therefore influence the value of the pregnant mare. This knowledge could change various management decisions such as appraisals, foaling location, sales’ reserves, insurance… Read More »

Oocyte Transfer

Oocyte transfer is the placement of a donor’s oocyte into the oviduct of a recipient. The recipient can be inseminated within the uterus or within the oviduct. Placement of the oocyte and sperm within the recipient’s oviduct is more accurately termed gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). The first successful oocyte transfer was done in 1989; however,… Read More »

Dimenhydrinate

Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »