Tag Archives: Caffeine

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Alprazolam (Xanax)

Benzodiazepine Sedative / Tranquilizer Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Oral benzodiazepine that may be useful for unwanted behaviors in dogs or cats • Contraindications: Aggressive animals (controversial), benzodiazepine hypersensitivity • Caution: Hepatic or renal disease • Adverse Effects: Sedation, behavior changes, & contradictory responses; physical dependence is a possibility; may impede training • C-IV controlled… Read More »


Definition and cause Encephalitis is an inflammatory process of the brain that may or may not involve the meninges and / or the spinal cord. It is often caused by infections and immune-mediated processes, especially in pugs and Maltese dogs. Encephalitis occurs in both dogs and cats, and is commonly associated with the following causes:… Read More »

Herbs For Neurological Disorders

Traditional herbalists employ nervine herbs to treat disorders of the nervous system, including cognitive dysfunction, degenerative myelopathy, epilepsy, and paresis/ paralysis (IV disc disease). Any plant that affects the nervous system is called a nervine. Perhaps one of the most useful classes of traditional nervines are the nerve tonics. These include the adaptogens (for example,… Read More »


Most cases result from the poison being swallowed. In a few instances poison may be taken in through a wound of the skin, or even through the unbroken skin, e.g. phenol preparations. Malicious poisoning is most frequently carried out against dogs and cats, although horses and ruminants also sometimes suffer. The use of poison to… Read More »

Clorazepate Dipotassium

Chemistry A benzodiazepine anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anticonvulsant, clorazepate dipotassium occurs as a light yellow, fine powder that is very soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Capsules and tablets should be stored in tight, light resistant containers at room temperature. Clorazepate dipotassium is unstable in the presence of water.… Read More »


Chemistry A benzodiazepine anticonvulsant, clonazepam occurs as an off-white to light yellow, crystalline powder having a faint odor. It is insoluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Tablets should be stored in air-tight, light resistant containers at room temperature. After manufacture, a 5 year expiration date is assigned. Pharmacology… Read More »


Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid (malonyl-urea). They include a wide range of very valuable sedative, hypnotic or anaesthetic agents. Several are used in veterinary practice, including pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and thiopentone. An overdose is often used to euthanase dogs and cats; and farm animals where the brain is required for examination, as in suspected BSE… Read More »