Tag Archives: Cimetidine

Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B Lipid-Based (Abelcet, Fungizone)

Antifungal Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Systemic antifungal used for serious mycotic infections • Must be administered IV • Nephrotoxicity is biggest concern, particularly with the deoxycholate form; newer lipid based products are less nephrotoxic & penetrate into tissues better, but are more expensive • Renal function monitoring essential • Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »

Acetazolamide, Acetazolamide Sodium (Diamox, Dazamide)

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Diuretic; Antiglaucoma Agent Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Used primarily for metabolic alkalosis or glaucoma in small animals; HYPP in horses • Contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic, renal, pulmonary or adrenocortical insufficiency, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremic acidosis or electrolyte imbalance • Give oral doses with food if GI upset occurs • Electrolytes… Read More »

Esophageal Disorders

1. What is the most common clinical sign of an esophageal disorder? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation refers to passive, retrograde movement of ingested material to a level proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter; usually this material has not reached the stomach. In most cases, regurgitation results from abnormal… Read More »

Diltiazem

Diltiazem Hydrochloride Chemistry A calcium channel blocker, diltiazem HCl occurs as a white to off-white crystalline powder having a bitter taste. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Potencies may be expressed in terms of base (active moiety) and the salt. Dosages are generally expressed in terms of the salt. Diltiazem is also known as… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »

Constipation

Constipation; Cause The etiopathogenesis of idiopathic megacolon is still incompletely understood. Several reviews have emphasized the importance of considering an extensive list of differential diagnoses (e. g., neuromuscular, mechanical, inflammatory, metabolic and endocrine, pharmacologic, environmental, and behavioral causes) for the obstipated cat (Box Differential Diagnosis of Constipation in the Cat). A review of published cases… Read More »

Recovery And Analgesia

Recovery involves ventilation with 100% oxygen. The endotracheal tube is removed once the bird will no longer tolerate its presence. Regardless of the anesthetic used, practically all patients will appear disorientated and will attempt to flap their wings during recovery. Every attempt should be made to gently constrain them (without restricting respiration) to ensure that… Read More »

Ulceration

Gastric Erosion And Ulceration Gastric erosions and ulcers are associated with a number of primary gastric and non-gastric disorders (Table Association of Gastric Ulceration and Erosion with Specific Diseases). Clinical signs range in duration and severity, from acute to chronic and mild to life threatening. The pathomechanisms underlying gastric damage can be broadly attributed to… Read More »

What is the best treatment for chemotherapy-induced renal failure?

The initial goals for treating drug- and tumor-related acute renal failure in dogs and cats are to discontinue all drugs that may be nephrotoxic, to document prerenal or postrenal abnormalities, and to initiate fluid therapy. The primary objectives of fluid therapy are to correct deficits such as dehydration and excesses such as volume overload, as… Read More »