Tag Archives: Clenbuterol

Treatment of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage

A variety of approaches are used to treat or manage exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. The precise etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is still far from clear and it may well be multifactorial or exacerbated by other coexisting disease processes or by inherited factors. However, to date the number of treatments shown under close scientific scrutiny in… Read More »

Heaves (Recurrent Airway Obstruction)

Practical Management of Acute Episodes and Prevention of Exacerbations Heaves, also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is an inflammatory condition in horses that results from the inhalation of dust in moldy hay and bedding. The condition affects primarily the small airways of horses and causes bronchospasm, bronchial hyperresponsiveness,… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »

Placental Hydrops

Hydrops is a rare condition in the mare, with hydroallantois occurring more commonly than hydramnios. Hydroallantois causes rapid abdominal enlargement during the last trimester of pregnancy (), and a sudden increase in the volume of allantoic fluid during a period of 10 to 14 days. The pathophysiology of hydroallantois in the mare remains unknown. Some… Read More »


The equine placenta consists of the allantochorion, the allantoamnion, and the umbilical cord. The chorionic portion of the allantochorion is attached to the endometrium by microcotyledons that are present throughout the uterus, with the exception of a small area at the internal os of the cervix called the cervical star. The allantochorion supports the fetus… Read More »

Sulphonamides and potentiated sulphonamides

Sulphonamides The sulphonamides form an extensive series of drugs that differ more in their physicochemical characteristics, and hence in mode of administration and pharmacokinetics, than they do in their antibacterial activity. They act by competing with tissue factors, notably p-aminobenzoic acid, and are therefore inactive in the presence of necrotic tissue. They are bacteriostatic to… Read More »


Asthma is a term somewhat loosely applied to a number of conditions in which the main sign is breathlessness. Strictly speaking, the term should be reserved for those conditions where a true spasmodic expulsion of breath occurs without the effort of a cough. The so called ‘asthma’ of birds is due in nearly every case… Read More »