Tag Archives: Cyclophosphamide

Vasculitis and Angiitis

The terms vasculitis and angiitis refer to the pathologic syndrome that is characterized by vascular inflammation and necrosis. Although there have been many reported causes of vasculitis, only a few histologic manifestations of the disease have been diagnosed. Vasculitis can occur in toxic, immune-mediated, infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. Blood vessels of any type in… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease: Complications And Specific Syndromes

Asymptomatic Heartworm Infection Most dogs with heartworm infection are asymptomatic, even though many of these have heartworm disease (radiographic and pathologic lesions). Treatment is as described previously, using melarsomine in the split-dose regimen, along with a macrolide preventative. Asymptomatic dogs may, however, become symptomatic af’er adulticidal therapy due to postadulticidal thromboembolization and lung injury (as… Read More »

Lymphoproliferative and Myeloproliferative Disorders

Leukemia is the abnormal proliferation of hematopoietic cells that encompasses both lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders and is considered rarer in the horse than in other species. Leukemia can be classified based on the (1) type of abnormal cell: lymphoid or myeloid; (2) degree of tumor differentiation: acute or chronic; and (3) number of specific types… Read More »


Lymphoma is the general term denoting malignant transformation of lymphoid cells, but it is often used in equine medicine in place of the term lymphosarcoma, which is specifically the malignant transformation of lymphoid cells into solid (or sarcomatous) tumors. Lymphoid leukemia (or “true” leukemia) denotes the malignant transformation of lymphoid cells within the bone marrow.… Read More »

Treatment of Thrombocytopenia

No treatment for primary bone marrow megakaryocyte hypoplasia exists. (Treatment for DIC is discussed in: “Hemostatic Disorders.”) Treatment for IMTP is similar to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Medication withdrawal should be implemented with adjustment of antibiotic or drug therapy to a molecularly dissimilar agent. Attempts should be made to identify and treat potential underlying diseases. In… Read More »

Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia () results from cross-reacting antibodies that induce enhanced red blood cell removal. Autoimmune (primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia) hemolysis results from loss of self-tolerance and is relatively rare in horses. Most commonly, hemolysis results from adherence of cross-reacting antibodies to erythrocyte surface antigens (secondary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). The presence of these molecules on… Read More »

Treatment of Cutaneous Lymphosarcoma

Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay of treatment of cutaneous T cell-rich, B cell lymphoma. Tumor regression is typically noted following the systemic administration of dexamethasone (0.02-0.2 mg/kg IV, IM or PO q24h) or prednisolone (1-2 mg/kg PO q24h). In these authors’ experience, dexamethasone proves more effective than prednisolone in treating lymphosarcoma. Once cutaneous lesions have regressed… Read More »


Cause of Neoplasia In dogs, tumors of the large intestine are more common than tumors of the stomach and small intestine. The mean age of dogs affected with colonic neoplasia is variably reported between 7 and 11 years of age. Most colonic tumors of dogs are malignant and include the adenocarcinomas, lymphosarcomas, and gastrointestinal stromal… Read More »

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a collective term that describes a group of disorders characterized by persistent or recurrent gastrointestinal signs and histologic evidence of intestinal inflammation on biopsy material. The disease bears little resemblance to inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) of humans, and indiscriminate use of the term “IBD” is no more… Read More »


Mange (Demodectic / Sarcoptic) Definition and cause Demodex is a localized or generalized parasitic disease caused by Demodex spp. mites. The underlying cause is believed to be genetic or related to immune deficiency or imbalance. In cats it is most often associated with other systemic disease such as FIV. Sarcoptic mange is a highly pruritic… Read More »