Tag Archives: Dextran

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »

Blood and Blood Component Therapy

Equine patients suffer circulatory collapse secondary to acute or chronic blood loss, significant hypoalbuminemia, and septic shock. Management of these critical patients is centered on reestablishing blood pressure and oxygen supply to vital organs such as the brain, kidneys, and liver. Commonly used therapies include crystalloid and colloid administration. Infusion of crystalloids in large volumes… Read More »

Acute Blood Loss

The pathophysiologic effects of acute blood loss result from decreased circulating blood volume and associated hypovolemic shock. Hemorrhage becomes clinically significant when over 30% of the body’s blood is lost rapidly. Because blood volume represents approximately 8% of body weight, this loss constitutes 10.8 liters in a 450-kg horse. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of blood loss… Read More »


1. What constitutes hypoproteinemia? Hypoproteinemia exists if the total serum protein is < 5.4 gm / dl for dogs and < 5.9 gm / dl for cats. Hypoproteinemia usually results from decreased globulins (dogs, < 1.9 gm / dl; cats, < 2.9 gm / dl), decreased albumin (dogs, < 2.7 gm / dl; cats, <… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »

Gastric Dilatation And Volvulus

Gastric dilatation and gastric dilatation and volvulus are characterized by the dramatic distension of the stomach with air. With volvulus the stomach twists about its axis, moving dorsally and left of the fundus. Both dilatation and dilatation and volvulus cause caudal caval obstruction and impair venous return to the heart. This results in hypovolemic shock… Read More »

Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, And Hypoproteinemia

1. Are transfusions essential in an emergency situation? Absolutely. Transfusions are frequently needed for veterinary patients as a result of various emergency situations, including blood loss, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), clinical syndromes associated with the hypocoagulable state of malignancy and other diseases, and other hematologic abnormalities. In general, transfusions and specific blood components should be… Read More »


CHLOROTHIAZIDE SODIUM Chemistry A thiazide diuretic structurally related to the sulfonamides, chlorothiazide occurs as a white or practically white, odorless, slightly bitter-tasting, crystalline powder. It has a melting point of approximately 355° C and pKas of 6.7 and 9.5. It is very slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. The pH of the… Read More »