Tag Archives: Doxapram

Diseases of the Throat: Diagnosis

Diagnostic Imaging Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographic views of both the skull and cervical areas are indicated. Radiopaque foreign bodies can be identified that may be missed on laryngoscopy and pharyngoscopy (e.g. sewing needle embedded in soft tissues). Radiographs are also useful in identifying bony changes associated with chronic inflammation or neoplasia, identifying clues of unreported… Read More »

Acepromazine Maleate (PromAce, Aceproject)

Phenothiazine Sedative / Tranquilizer Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Negligible analgesic effects • Dosage may need to be reduced in debilitated or geriatric animals, those with hepatic or cardiac disease, or when combined with other agents • Inject IV slowly; do not inject into arteries • Certain dog breeds (e.g., giant breeds, sight hounds) may… Read More »

Reptile Anesthesia

Restraint of reptiles may be performed without as much risk in the case of the debilitated animal in comparison to birds, for example. However, it is still worthwhile considering how to successfully and safely restrain the reptile patient in order for it to be anesthetised as well as some techniques that may make restraint less… Read More »

Additional Supportive Therapy

Positioning Due to the unique anatomy of the avian patient’s respiratory system, it is vitally important that the ribcage can move freely, otherwise hypoxia will develop. Common positions include lateral or dorsal recumbency. Dorsal recumbency may be a problem in larger species where the digestive / abdominal contents may press on the air sacs when… Read More »

Brain Death

1. How is death defined? In humans, death is defined as (1) the irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions or (2) the irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain-stem. In animals, consciousness characterizes an animal’s existence, and the irreversible loss of consciousness defines death. Consciousness is the most integrative… Read More »


Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid (malonyl-urea). They include a wide range of very valuable sedative, hypnotic or anaesthetic agents. Several are used in veterinary practice, including pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and thiopentone. An overdose is often used to euthanase dogs and cats; and farm animals where the brain is required for examination, as in suspected BSE… Read More »