Tag Archives: Enalapril

Balanced vasodilators

Sodium nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a potent arteriolar and venodilator drug with a similar mechanism of action to the organic nitrates, h has a very short duration of action and is administered by continuous intravenous infusion starting at an initial infusion rate of 1-5 μg kg-1 min-1. It reduces pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance decreasing… Read More »

Blood Pressure Measurement: Indirect

Patient Preparation None required. Technique Generally, two techniques are used. Oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurement entails use of an automated recording system. A cuff is applied to the base of the tail or a distal limb for access to an artery. This technique generally is regarded as being most accurate in dogs. When oscillometric BP… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease: Complications And Specific Syndromes

Asymptomatic Heartworm Infection Most dogs with heartworm infection are asymptomatic, even though many of these have heartworm disease (radiographic and pathologic lesions). Treatment is as described previously, using melarsomine in the split-dose regimen, along with a macrolide preventative. Asymptomatic dogs may, however, become symptomatic af’er adulticidal therapy due to postadulticidal thromboembolization and lung injury (as… Read More »

Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Chronic Therapy

Diuretic Therapy Diuretics are the only drugs that can routinely control the clinical signs referable to congestion and edema due to heart failure. Consequently, it is mandatory for cats with congestive heart failure to be on a diuretic, usually furosemide. The chronic orally administered dose for furosemide in cats is wide and ranges from 0.5… Read More »

HCM: Pathophysiology

Hypertrophy, Diastolic Dysfunction, and Congestive Heart Failure Enlarged papillary muscles and a thick left ventricular myocardium with a normal to small left ventricular chamber characterize hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be mild, moderate, or severe. Severe concentric hypertrophy by itself increases chamber stiffness. In addition, blood flow and especially blood flow reserve to severely thickened… Read More »

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Chronic Therapy

Many aspects of chronic therapy of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. All therapy is palliative. Furosemide is the only drug that has a clearly beneficial effect chronically on survival in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Pleurocentesis Many cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are dyspneic because of pleural effusion that reaccumulates despite appropriate medical therapy. These cats need periodic… Read More »

Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Breed Variations

There is an increasing amount of breed specific information about canine dilated cardiomyopathy. Because of differences the specific breed should be considered when considering etiology, developing treatment plans, and providing prognostic information. Occasionally, atypical breeds of dogs develop dilated cardiomyopathy. The etiology of the disease in these cases is unknown. Cocker Spaniels Dilated cardiomyopathy has… Read More »

Management of Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency

Ideally, therapy of chronic mitral valve insufficiency would halt the progression of the valvular degeneration. Improvement of valvular function by surgical repair or valve replacement would likewise stop further deterioration. However, no therapy is currently known to inhibit or prevent the valvular degeneration, and surgery is usually not technically, economically, or ethically possible in canine… Read More »

Therapy of Heart Failure

Heart failure may be recognized as a clinical end-point in nearly all cardiac diseases. Because the underlying cause of the development of heart failure varies significantly between species and disease conditions, it is often difficult to define heart failure accurately and concisely. In 1994, a panel of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute concluded:… Read More »

Progression Of Heart Failure

Traditionally heart failure has been perceived as a hemodynamic disorder that promotes weakness, the development of debilitating congestive signs, deterioration of cardiac function, and ultimately death. Although the initial cardiac insult varies, it was historically rationalized that ventricular remodeling and disease progression occur as consequences of the compensatory mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction and fluid retention.… Read More »