Tag Archives: Estradiol

Placentitis: Clinical Signs and Diagnosis

Clinical signs include those observed in mares with pending abortion. Udder development, premature lactation, and cervical softening are often seen before the mare aborts. Vaginal discharge may or may not proceed abortions. Once clinical signs develop, the disease has reached an advanced stage and treatment may not always be successful. Evaluation of the equine placenta… Read More »

Oocyte Transfer

Oocyte transfer is the placement of a donor’s oocyte into the oviduct of a recipient. The recipient can be inseminated within the uterus or within the oviduct. Placement of the oocyte and sperm within the recipient’s oviduct is more accurately termed gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). The first successful oocyte transfer was done in 1989; however,… Read More »

Enlarged Ovaries

Anovulatory Follicles Large, anovulatory follicles are a normal finding during the spring and fall transition periods. Anovulatory follicles can exceed 10 cm in diameter and may persist for several weeks. The cause is likely to be abnormal estrogen production by the follicle and/or insufficient release of pituitary gonadotropin to induce ovulation. Often the ultrasonographic image… Read More »

Foal Heat-Breeding

Commercial horse breeding farms operate under the same economic rules as other forms of intensive livestock production. Use of stallions must be efficient, and mares must produce the greatest number of foals possible. This requires intensive management. The primary reason for foal heat-breeding is to increase the efficiency of the production unit. The performance of… Read More »

Treatment of Cutaneous Lymphosarcoma

Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay of treatment of cutaneous T cell-rich, B cell lymphoma. Tumor regression is typically noted following the systemic administration of dexamethasone (0.02-0.2 mg/kg IV, IM or PO q24h) or prednisolone (1-2 mg/kg PO q24h). In these authors’ experience, dexamethasone proves more effective than prednisolone in treating lymphosarcoma. Once cutaneous lesions have regressed… Read More »

Drugs Acting On The Reproductive System

Drugs used to promote gonadal function Sex hormones Prostaglandins Myometrial stimulants Myometrial relaxants Prolactin antagonists Non-hormonal abortificants Drugs for uterine infections Many drugs are used at different stages of the oestrous cycle to manage the response of the reproductive system; these are summarised in Table Drags affecting the reproductive system. Table Drags affecting the reproductive… Read More »

Sex hormones

Oestrogens Oestrogens are responsible physiologically for initiating behavioural signs of oestrus, preparing the female reproductive tract for fertilisation and developing the secretory tissue of the mammary gland. They also have anabolic activity. Oestrogens are used in the treatment of misalliance in the bitch. They act by inhibiting the transport of the fertilised ova down the… Read More »


Definition and cause Alopecia is one of the most common conditions seen by veterinarians. It is often a result of multiple underlying causes with the secondary ramification of loss of hair. The broad categories of alopecia are (1) genetic predisposition, and (2) acquired, such as inflammatory, infectious (bacterial, fungal), immune-mediated, hormonal imbalances, parasitic, and secondary… Read More »