Tag Archives: Fenoterol

Treatment Modalities

Aerosolized drugs can be used to provide both quick relief of respiratory difficulty and long-term treatment (Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized Medications in Horses). Quick relief can be provided by short-acting β2-adrenergic agonists or anticholinergic drugs. Long-term therapy is provided by use of antiinflammatory drugs and perhaps long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized… Read More »

Metered-Dose Inhalant Systems

Several devices have been designed for convenient administration of aerosolized drugs formulated in a metered-dose inhaler () cannister to horses with recurrent airway obstruction (). The advantages of an metered-dose inhaler system include rapid administration, consistent ex-valve dose delivery, minimal risk of pulmonary contamination with environmental microorganisms, ease of cleaning/maintaining equipment, wide availability, and no… Read More »

Heaves (Recurrent Airway Obstruction)

Practical Management of Acute Episodes and Prevention of Exacerbations Heaves, also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is an inflammatory condition in horses that results from the inhalation of dust in moldy hay and bedding. The condition affects primarily the small airways of horses and causes bronchospasm, bronchial hyperresponsiveness,… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »