Tag Archives: Fentanyl

Alfentanil HCL (Alfenta)

Opiate Anesthetic Adjunct Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Injectable, potent opiate that may be useful for adjunctive anesthesia, particularly in cats • Marginal veterinary experience & little published data available to draw conclusions on appropriate usage in veterinary species • Dose-related respiratory & CNS depression are the most likely adverse effects seen • Dose may… Read More »

Treatment of Systemic Arterial Thromboembolism

Euthanasia In cats that are in acute pain that have a poor prognosis due to severe cardiomyopathy, euthanasia is a humane means of dealing with the problem. Systemic throm-boembolism is often a horrible complication of cardiomyopathy, the treatment options are all relatively poor, and rethrombosis is common. Consequently, although one should not automatically give up… Read More »


Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »

Induction And Maintenance Of Anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of the injectable anesthetics are that they are often easy to administer, they frequently involve minimal stress and they prevent the problems encountered with breath-holding when using gaseous induction techniques. Disadvantages include the problem of reversal for some agents, the often varying responses depending on the individual animal and the frequent… Read More »

Opioid Analgesics

Opioid analgesics (narcotic analgesics) produce their pharmacological effects by binding to specific opioid receptors, located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of structurally different receptors have been identified, the most important appear to be the μ (mu), δ (delta) and κ (kappa) receptors, more recently renamed OP3, OP1 and OP2 receptors,… Read More »

Total intravenous anaesthesia

The concept of maintaining general anaesthesia using only intravenous agents has developed rapidly over the past few years. Major benefits offered by this technique, when compared to inhalational agents, include improved controllability of anaesthesia and lack of environmental contamination with waste anaesthetic gases, which may have important implications for operating room personnel. In addition, using… Read More »

Muscle Relaxants

Neuromuscular blocking drugs (‘muscle relaxants’) Although most of the currently available anaesthetic agents will provide a degree of muscle relaxation, in general most of them provide good muscle relaxation only when delivered in high concentrations. Unfortunately, these concentrations are associated with severe cardiopulmonary depression, making these agents unsuitable by themselves for situations where profound muscle… Read More »


Chemistry Amlodipine besylate, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocking agent, occurs as a white crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Store amlodipine at room temperature, in tight, light resistant containers. Pharmacology Amlodipine inhibits calcium influx across cell membranes in both cardiac and vascular smooth… Read More »