Tag Archives: Folic acid

Systemic Arterial Thromboembolism

A thrombus is a blood clot. Thrombi are usually formed (to prevent hemorrhage) when a blood vessel is traumatized. They can also form spontaneously within the cardiovascular system. A systemic thrombus becomes a systemic throm-boembolus when it dislodges from the primary site where it forms in the cardiovascular system and is pushed by blood flow… Read More »

Anemia Secondary to Inadequate Erythropoiesis

The average lifespan of the equine erythrocyte is 150 days. Therefore anemia caused by inadequate erythropoiesis is an insidious process associated with scant, nonspecific clinical signs. Causes include anemia of chronic disease, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow aplasia, or myelophthisic disease. Of these, anemia of chronic disease () associated with infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic disorders is… Read More »


Stomatitis / Periodontal Disease Definition and cause Stomatitis represents an inflammatory condition of the oral cavity, and occurs in both dogs and cats. Mucosal inflammation in stomatitis can be generalized or focal involving any region of the mouth. This is a descriptive diagnosis. Successful therapy depends upon an accurate diagnosis, which means that diagnostic processes… Read More »


Definition and cause Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingival tissues and is common in both dogs and cats. The inciting cause is bacterial accumulation in the gingival space in combination with the animal’s immune response and competence. Bacterial growth results in the production of endotoxins, which lead to further inflammation, tissue destruction, and progression… Read More »

Autoimmune Anemia And Thrombocytopenia

Definition and cause Autoimmune anemia and thrombocytopenia are the result of increased destruction or decreased production of red blood cells or platelets. While the literature cites many causes for both diseases, such as destruction by antibodies, infectious agents, exposure to antigens, neoplasia and tick borne diseases, the basic mechanism of action is an exaggerated immune… Read More »

Sulphonamides and potentiated sulphonamides

Sulphonamides The sulphonamides form an extensive series of drugs that differ more in their physicochemical characteristics, and hence in mode of administration and pharmacokinetics, than they do in their antibacterial activity. They act by competing with tissue factors, notably p-aminobenzoic acid, and are therefore inactive in the presence of necrotic tissue. They are bacteriostatic to… Read More »


A reduction in the number and/or size of the red blood corpuscles or the haemoglobin in the blood. It is a sign rather than a disease, and it is important to establish the cause (obvious only in the case of acute external haemorrhage due to trauma), so that a prognosis and suitable treatment can be… Read More »