Tag Archives: Furosemide

Diseases Of The Middle And Inner Ear

Normal Anatomy and Physiology The middle ear consists of the tympanic membrane, three cavities (epitympanic, tympanic, and ventral), and the bony ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes). The tympanic membrane has two parts: (1) the thin pars tensa that attaches to the manubrium of the malleus and (2), above the pars tensa, the thicker, pars flaccida.… Read More »

Amiodarone HCL (Cordarone, Pacerone)

Class III Antiarrhythmic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Antidysrhythmic agent that can be used in dogs for arrhythmias associated with left ventricular dysfunction or to convert atrial fib into sinus rhythm; very limited experience warrants cautious use • May be useful in horses to convert atrial fib or V tach into sinus rhythm • Contraindicated… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease

Heartworm infection (HWI) (dirofilariasis), caused by Dirofilaria immitis, primarily affects members of the family Canidae. Dirofilariasis is widely distributed, being recognized in northern and southern temperate zones, in the tropics, and in the subtropics. Infections are recognized in most of the United States, although the distribution favors the Southeast and Mississippi River Valley. In some… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease: Complications And Specific Syndromes

Asymptomatic Heartworm Infection Most dogs with heartworm infection are asymptomatic, even though many of these have heartworm disease (radiographic and pathologic lesions). Treatment is as described previously, using melarsomine in the split-dose regimen, along with a macrolide preventative. Asymptomatic dogs may, however, become symptomatic af’er adulticidal therapy due to postadulticidal thromboembolization and lung injury (as… Read More »

Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Acute Therapy

Treatment Goals The treatment goals depend on the type and severity of the clinical signs. If severely dyspneic the initial goal is to make it easier for the cat to breathe by removing pleural effusion, by reducing pulmonary edema pharmacologically, or by administering oxygen. If the primary problem is a marked reduction in perfusion leading… Read More »

Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Chronic Therapy

Diuretic Therapy Diuretics are the only drugs that can routinely control the clinical signs referable to congestion and edema due to heart failure. Consequently, it is mandatory for cats with congestive heart failure to be on a diuretic, usually furosemide. The chronic orally administered dose for furosemide in cats is wide and ranges from 0.5… Read More »

HCM: Pathophysiology

Hypertrophy, Diastolic Dysfunction, and Congestive Heart Failure Enlarged papillary muscles and a thick left ventricular myocardium with a normal to small left ventricular chamber characterize hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be mild, moderate, or severe. Severe concentric hypertrophy by itself increases chamber stiffness. In addition, blood flow and especially blood flow reserve to severely thickened… Read More »

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Acute Therapy

Just as with dilated cardiomyopathy, cats that have respiratory distress suspected of having heart failure secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may need to be placed in an oxygen-enriched environment as soon as possible. If possible the cat should be initially evaluated by doing a cursory physical examination, taking care not to stress the patient during this… Read More »

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Chronic Therapy

Many aspects of chronic therapy of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. All therapy is palliative. Furosemide is the only drug that has a clearly beneficial effect chronically on survival in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Pleurocentesis Many cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are dyspneic because of pleural effusion that reaccumulates despite appropriate medical therapy. These cats need periodic… Read More »

Feline Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Although listed as a separate entity in this post, in most situations restrictive cardiomyopathy is a subclassification of unclassified cardiomyopathy. Feline restrictive cardiomyopathy is a diverse group of myocardial conditions characterized by abnormal diastolic function, normal to mildly increased left ventricular wall thickness, and normal to mildly reduced systolic function. restrictive cardiomyopathy occurs when ventricular… Read More »