Tag Archives: Hetastarch

Blood and Blood Component Therapy

Equine patients suffer circulatory collapse secondary to acute or chronic blood loss, significant hypoalbuminemia, and septic shock. Management of these critical patients is centered on reestablishing blood pressure and oxygen supply to vital organs such as the brain, kidneys, and liver. Commonly used therapies include crystalloid and colloid administration. Infusion of crystalloids in large volumes… Read More »

Placental Hydrops

Hydrops is a rare condition in the mare, with hydroallantois occurring more commonly than hydramnios. Hydroallantois causes rapid abdominal enlargement during the last trimester of pregnancy (), and a sudden increase in the volume of allantoic fluid during a period of 10 to 14 days. The pathophysiology of hydroallantois in the mare remains unknown. Some… Read More »

Canine Parvovirus

1. What are the common clinical signs in dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV)? • Lethargy • Vomiting • Inappetence • Fever • Acute-onset diarrhea • Profound neutropenia (white blood cells < 1000/mm3) Puppies between the ages of 6 weeks to 6 months are most commonly affected. In a Canadian study, sexually intact dogs had a… Read More »


1. What constitutes hypoproteinemia? Hypoproteinemia exists if the total serum protein is < 5.4 gm / dl for dogs and < 5.9 gm / dl for cats. Hypoproteinemia usually results from decreased globulins (dogs, < 1.9 gm / dl; cats, < 2.9 gm / dl), decreased albumin (dogs, < 2.7 gm / dl; cats, <… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »


Gastric Erosion And Ulceration Gastric erosions and ulcers are associated with a number of primary gastric and non-gastric disorders (Table Association of Gastric Ulceration and Erosion with Specific Diseases). Clinical signs range in duration and severity, from acute to chronic and mild to life threatening. The pathomechanisms underlying gastric damage can be broadly attributed to… Read More »

Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, And Hypoproteinemia

1. Are transfusions essential in an emergency situation? Absolutely. Transfusions are frequently needed for veterinary patients as a result of various emergency situations, including blood loss, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), clinical syndromes associated with the hypocoagulable state of malignancy and other diseases, and other hematologic abnormalities. In general, transfusions and specific blood components should be… Read More »