Tag Archives: Hydralazine

Hypertension

The methods for measuring blood pressure and reported normal blood pressure measurements in small animals are extremely variable. Blood pressure should be measured with the animal unsedated, relaxed and minimally restrained. Heart rate should be within normal resting limits (an increased heart rate tends to increase the diastolic blood pressure measurement). Direct measurements can be… Read More »

Balanced vasodilators

Sodium nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a potent arteriolar and venodilator drug with a similar mechanism of action to the organic nitrates, h has a very short duration of action and is administered by continuous intravenous infusion starting at an initial infusion rate of 1-5 μg kg-1 min-1. It reduces pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance decreasing… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease: Complications And Specific Syndromes

Asymptomatic Heartworm Infection Most dogs with heartworm infection are asymptomatic, even though many of these have heartworm disease (radiographic and pathologic lesions). Treatment is as described previously, using melarsomine in the split-dose regimen, along with a macrolide preventative. Asymptomatic dogs may, however, become symptomatic af’er adulticidal therapy due to postadulticidal thromboembolization and lung injury (as… Read More »

Treatment of Systemic Arterial Thromboembolism

Euthanasia In cats that are in acute pain that have a poor prognosis due to severe cardiomyopathy, euthanasia is a humane means of dealing with the problem. Systemic throm-boembolism is often a horrible complication of cardiomyopathy, the treatment options are all relatively poor, and rethrombosis is common. Consequently, although one should not automatically give up… Read More »

Management of Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency

Ideally, therapy of chronic mitral valve insufficiency would halt the progression of the valvular degeneration. Improvement of valvular function by surgical repair or valve replacement would likewise stop further deterioration. However, no therapy is currently known to inhibit or prevent the valvular degeneration, and surgery is usually not technically, economically, or ethically possible in canine… Read More »

Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Complications

Acute Exacerbation of Pulmonary Congestion and Edema due to Ruptured Chordae Tendineae Ruptured chordae tendineae (RCT) may be suspected in all dogs that suffer from chronic mitral valve insufficiency with drastic aggravation of pulmonary congestion and edema, whereas ruptured chordae tendineae is a rare finding in cats. It is not unusual for the ruptured chordae… Read More »

Infective Endocarditis

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disorder that results from microorganisms that colonize the cardiac endocardium, which commonly causes destruction of valves or other structures within the heart. Bacteremia is by far the most common etiology, with the mitral and aortic valve most frequently affected. Vegetation may cause thromboembolism or metastatic infections, which involve multiple… Read More »

Heart Failure: Treatment Strategies

Management of Acute Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure Dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or mitral regurgitation often present with acute onset of coughing, dyspnea, restlessness, orthopnea, and weakness subsequent to the development of severe pulmonary edema and/or low cardiac output. The immediate priorities in these patients are resolution of the pulmonary edema, maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion… Read More »