Tag Archives: Interferon

Inflammation Of The Lower Airways

Evidence indicates that lower airway inflammation is prevalent in the horse. This relates to stable, arena, and paddock conditions that put the horse at risk, in addition to constant challenges with viruses and bacteria. Exercise may increase lower airway inflammation, but evidence for this is scant in the equine species. Little information exists regarding the… Read More »

Medical Therapy For Upper Airway Disease

Because of the possibility that regional inflammation of the upper airway may be responsible for some obstructive upper airway diseases, enteral, parenteral, and topical antiinflammatory therapy may prove useful in their treatment. Although a proven correlation between airway inflammation and upper airway obstructive diseases remains to be established, an association exists between the presence of… Read More »

Anemia Secondary to Inadequate Erythropoiesis

The average lifespan of the equine erythrocyte is 150 days. Therefore anemia caused by inadequate erythropoiesis is an insidious process associated with scant, nonspecific clinical signs. Causes include anemia of chronic disease, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow aplasia, or myelophthisic disease. Of these, anemia of chronic disease () associated with infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic disorders is… Read More »

Treatment of Pastern Dermatitis

The appropriate therapy obviously involves identification of the predisposing, perpetuating, and primary factors. In general, avoiding pastures/paddocks with mud, water, or sand may minimize predisposing factors. Keeping patients stalled during wet weather and until morning dew has dried is often rewarding. Use of alternate sources of bedding may be beneficial because the chemicals in treated… Read More »


Atopy is a genetic, dermatologic, and/or respiratory condition that occurs when a horse develops sensitizing antibodies to environmental allergens such as molds, grasses, trees, weeds, fabrics, and dust. The sensitizing antibody that is produced, immunoglobulin E (IgE), causes cross-linkage on mast cells within the affected tissue. This cross-linkage results in the release of inflammatory mediators… Read More »

CaniLeish for Dogs

Scientific discussion This medicine is approved for use in the European Union CaniLeish is a lyophilisate and solvent for suspension for injection, intended for the active immunisation of Leishmania negative dogs from 6 months of age to reduce the risk to develop an active infection and clinical disease after contact with Leishmania infantum. The active… Read More »

What Is The Role Of Inflammation In Heart Failure?

Cytokines are highly potent, endogenous peptides with autocrine and paracrine actions; they are produced by a variety of cell types. Unlike hormones, cytokines are not stored but are secreted in response to specific stimuli. TNF-alpha, lntcrleukin-1 -alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are classified as proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines initiate both primary host responses… Read More »

Canine Parvovirus

1. What are the common clinical signs in dogs with canine parvovirus (CPV)? • Lethargy • Vomiting • Inappetence • Fever • Acute-onset diarrhea • Profound neutropenia (white blood cells < 1000/mm3) Puppies between the ages of 6 weeks to 6 months are most commonly affected. In a Canadian study, sexually intact dogs had a… Read More »

Viral Enteritides

Most viral enteritides of dogs and cats, especially the parvovirus infections, cause an acute and usually self-limiting diarrhea, although severe cases in young or immunocompromised patients may be fatal. Canine parvovirus infection is described here as the index case for viral enteritides. Canine Parvovirus Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious cause of… Read More »

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a collective term that describes a group of disorders characterized by persistent or recurrent gastrointestinal signs and histologic evidence of intestinal inflammation on biopsy material. The disease bears little resemblance to inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) of humans, and indiscriminate use of the term “IBD” is no more… Read More »