Tag Archives: Ipratropium

Albuterol Sulfate (Salbutamol, Proventil, Ventolin)

Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Used primarily as a bronchodilator after PO or inhaled dosing • Use with caution in patients with cardiac dysrhythmias or dysfunction, seizure disorders, hypertension or hyperthyroidism • May be teratogenic (high doses) or delay labor What Is Albuterol Sulfate Used For? Albuterol is used principally in dogs and… Read More »

Treatment Modalities

Aerosolized drugs can be used to provide both quick relief of respiratory difficulty and long-term treatment (Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized Medications in Horses). Quick relief can be provided by short-acting β2-adrenergic agonists or anticholinergic drugs. Long-term therapy is provided by use of antiinflammatory drugs and perhaps long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Table Recommended Dosages for Aerosolized… Read More »

Metered-Dose Inhalant Systems

Several devices have been designed for convenient administration of aerosolized drugs formulated in a metered-dose inhaler () cannister to horses with recurrent airway obstruction (). The advantages of an metered-dose inhaler system include rapid administration, consistent ex-valve dose delivery, minimal risk of pulmonary contamination with environmental microorganisms, ease of cleaning/maintaining equipment, wide availability, and no… Read More »

Dry Powder Inhalant (DPI) Devices

Dry powder inhalant devices offer several advantages over nebulization systems, including rapid drug administration, minimal risk of environmental contamination with drug, and no requirement for electricity. The dry powder inhalants comprise numerous capsules containing a single dose of drug and a rotor. The rotor of the dry powder inhalant device is breath-actuated, and the device… Read More »

Interstitial Pneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia is an uncommon cause of acute or chronic disorders of the lower respiratory tract of horses. However, because of the severity of the process, recognition and definitive diagnosis of this entity are important as early as possible in its clinical course. The term interstitial pneumonia defines a number of diseases that are chronic… Read More »

Heaves (Recurrent Airway Obstruction)

Practical Management of Acute Episodes and Prevention of Exacerbations Heaves, also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is an inflammatory condition in horses that results from the inhalation of dust in moldy hay and bedding. The condition affects primarily the small airways of horses and causes bronchospasm, bronchial hyperresponsiveness,… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »