Tag Archives: Itraconazole

Diseases of the Ear: General Principles Of Management

The therapeutic plan for otitis externa requires identification of the primary disease process and perpetuating factors. Ideally management is aimed at thoroughly cleaning and drying the ear canal, removing or managing the primary factors, controlling perpetuating factors, administering appropriate topical or systemic therapy (or both), and evaluating response to therapy. Ear Cleaning Ear cleaning serves… Read More »

Therapy For Specific Diseases Of The External Ear Canal

Ectoparasites Thorough cleaning of the external ear canal, treatment of all household pets, and whole-body therapy should be considered in the treatment regimen for ear mites. Pets with no clinical signs may be asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for reinfestation. Otic parasiticides such as pyrethrins, rotenone, amitraz, and carbaryl must be administered every 24 hours… Read More »

Inflammatory Diseases

Viral Rhinitis Viral rhinitis is a prominent disease in cats. The initial clinical signs are paroxysmal sneezing, conjunctivitis, and serous ocular and nasal discharge. About 5 days after the onset of sneezing, the nasal discharge becomes mucopurulent and there may be ocular complications. The condition usually persists for 2 to 3 weeks. Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1)… Read More »

Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B Lipid-Based (Abelcet, Fungizone)

Antifungal Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Systemic antifungal used for serious mycotic infections • Must be administered IV • Nephrotoxicity is biggest concern, particularly with the deoxycholate form; newer lipid based products are less nephrotoxic & penetrate into tissues better, but are more expensive • Renal function monitoring essential • Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B… Read More »

Guttural Pouch Mycosis

Guttural pouch mycosis is the most common cause of serious epistaxis that is not related to exercise or trauma. Massive epistaxis may be the first and only outward clinical sign of fungal invasion of the guttural pouch. In other horses, infection results in chronic mucoid or serosan-guineous nasal discharge, with or without cranial nerve dysfunction.… Read More »


Sporotrichosis: Etiology Sporotrichosis is a mycotic disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exists in a mycelial form at environmental temperatures (25°-30° C) and as a yeast form in body tissues (37° C). The organism is distributed worldwide and can be found preferentially in soils that are rich in decaying organic matter.… Read More »


Histoplasma capsulatum Cause of Fungi Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease of dogs and cats caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. In the environment, H. histoplasma organisms are mycelial, saprophytic soil fungi. In infected tissue or when cultured at 30 to 37° C, the organism is a yeast. The fungus is endemic throughout most of the temperate… Read More »


Pythium insidiosum Oomycetes: Cause Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes severe gastrointestinal pathology in a range of hosts in the tropic and subtropic climates. Based on ribosomal RNA gene sequence data, members of the Class Oomycetes are phylogenetically distinct from the Kingdom Fungi and are more closely related to algae than to fungi.… Read More »


Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca wickerhatnii Algae: Cause Three species have been recognized within the genus Prototheca: P. stagnosa, P. wickerhatnii, and P. zopfii; a fourth species, P. salmonis, has been proposed. Of these three species, P. wickerhatnii and P. zopfii have demonstrated pathogenicity. Prototheca spp. are ubiquitous in nature and are found in sewage systems,… Read More »


Cause of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be defined using clinical, histologic, immunologic, pathophysiologic, and genetic criteria. Clinical criteria Inflammatory bowel disease has been defined clinically as a spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders of an unknown cause that is associated with chronic inflammation of the stomach, intestine, or colon. A clinical diagnosis of… Read More »