Tag Archives: Ketamine

Urine Collection Techniques

Urine can be removed from the bladder by one of four methods: (1) voided (the “free catch”), (2) manual compression of the urinary bladder (expressing the bladder), (3) catheterization, or (4) cystocentesis. Voiding For routine urinalysis, collection of urine by voiding (micturition) is satisfactory. The major disadvantage is risk of contamination of the sample with… Read More »

Amantadine HCL (Symmetrel)

Antiviral (Influenza A); Nmda Antagonist Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Antiviral drug with NMDA antagonist properties; may be useful in adjunctive therapy of chronic pain in small animals & treatment of equine influenza in horses • Very limited clinical experience; dogs may exhibit agitation & GI effects, especially early in therapy • Large interpatient variations… Read More »

HCM: Pathophysiology

Hypertrophy, Diastolic Dysfunction, and Congestive Heart Failure Enlarged papillary muscles and a thick left ventricular myocardium with a normal to small left ventricular chamber characterize hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be mild, moderate, or severe. Severe concentric hypertrophy by itself increases chamber stiffness. In addition, blood flow and especially blood flow reserve to severely thickened… Read More »

Acepromazine Maleate (PromAce, Aceproject)

Phenothiazine Sedative / Tranquilizer Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Negligible analgesic effects • Dosage may need to be reduced in debilitated or geriatric animals, those with hepatic or cardiac disease, or when combined with other agents • Inject IV slowly; do not inject into arteries • Certain dog breeds (e.g., giant breeds, sight hounds) may… Read More »

Postanesthetic Upper Respiratory Tract Obstruction

Upper respiratory tract () obstruction can occur in horses recovering from general anesthesia after various surgical procedures. Postanesthetic upper respiratory tract obstruction most often results from nasal edema and/or congestion and is usually mild. Other causes include arytenoid chondritis, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, and bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis. Bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis is… Read More »

Management Of Dystocia

Materials required to correct a foaling problem may be as simple as an obstetrical sleeve, lubricant, and some baling twine. However it is common practice for a clinician to have on hand a pair of obstetrical chains (or straps) and handles or a Krey-Schotter hook, and a snare rod. Copious lubrication is often the key… Read More »

Reptile Anesthesia

Restraint of reptiles may be performed without as much risk in the case of the debilitated animal in comparison to birds, for example. However, it is still worthwhile considering how to successfully and safely restrain the reptile patient in order for it to be anesthetised as well as some techniques that may make restraint less… Read More »

Aspects Of Chemical Restraint

Chemical restraint is often necessary in reptile medicine to facilitate procedures from simply extracting the head of a leopard tortoise or box turtle, to enable a jugular blood sample to be performed, to coeliotomy procedures such as surgical correction of egg-binding. Before any anesthetic / sedative is administered, an assessment of the reptile patient’s health… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

Injectable agents Advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, avoiding problems related to breath-holding and prolonged induction, low cost and good availability. Disadvantages include a recovery often dependent on organ metabolism, difficulty reversing medications in emergency situations, prolonged recovery periods and necrosis of muscle cells at injection sites. Also, due to the renal portal… Read More »

Maintaining Anesthesia

Inhalational anesthesia is becoming the main method of anesthetising reptiles for prolonged procedures and as described above offers many benefits. These are enhanced still further if the reptile is intubated allowing the anesthetic to be delivered in a controlled manner. Intubation The glottis, which acts as the entrance to the trachea, is relatively rostral in… Read More »