Tag Archives: Levamisole


Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid parasite of dogs and foxes which primarily parasitizes the pulmonary artery and its branches; it may also inhabit the right ventricle. Natural A. vasorum infection has been reported in a number of European countries including Ireland. Denmark, southwest France. Spain. Italy and pans of the UK. In the UK the… Read More »


Canine heart worm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in most temperate and tropical coastal zones of the world (United States. Japan and Australia especially). Heartworm disease is occasionally diagnosed in imported dogs in the United Kingdom. Affected animals are often between 4 and 7 years of age although the condition has been diagnosed… Read More »

Canine Heartworm Disease: Ancillary Therapy

Corticosteroids The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects inherent to corticosteroids are useful for treatment of some aspects of HWD. Prednisone, the steroid most often advocated, reduces pulmonary arteritis but actually worsens the proliferative vascular lesions of HWD, diminishes pulmonary arterial flow, and reduces the effectiveness of thiacetarsemide. For these reasons, corticosteroids are indicated in heartworm disease… Read More »

Eosinophilic Granuloma

Definition and cause Feline eosinophilic granuloma is an inflammatory disease that most commonly occurs in cats but can occur in dogs and other species. While the proven cause is not known, it is believed that the underlying cause is related to an allergic reaction (food, insect, environmental). Other suspected causes include genetic predisposition, infection, or… Read More »

Diethylcarbamazine Citrate

Chemistry A piperazine derivative, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) occurs as a white, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder that is either odorless or has a slight odor and a melting point of approximately 138°C. It is very soluble in water and slightly soluble (1 gram in 35 ml) in alcohol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Unless otherwise specified… Read More »


Chemistry Cythioate is an oral organophosphate agent. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Unless otherwise noted by the manufacturer store products in tight, light resistant containers at room temperature. Pharmacology After being distributed into body fluids, cythioate is ingested by fleas, ticks and demodectic mites. It then inhibits acetylcholinesterase thereby interfering with neuromuscular transmission. Uses –… Read More »