Tag Archives: Mannitol

Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B Lipid-Based (Abelcet, Fungizone)

Antifungal Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Systemic antifungal used for serious mycotic infections • Must be administered IV • Nephrotoxicity is biggest concern, particularly with the deoxycholate form; newer lipid based products are less nephrotoxic & penetrate into tissues better, but are more expensive • Renal function monitoring essential • Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B… Read More »

Postanesthetic Upper Respiratory Tract Obstruction

Upper respiratory tract () obstruction can occur in horses recovering from general anesthesia after various surgical procedures. Postanesthetic upper respiratory tract obstruction most often results from nasal edema and/or congestion and is usually mild. Other causes include arytenoid chondritis, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, and bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis. Bilateral arytenoid cartilage paralysis is… Read More »

Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia is a pathologic condition that results from accelerated erythrocyte removal and can be intravascular and extravascular. Intravascular hemolysis occurs when erythrocytes are destroyed within the vascular space. Clinical signs associated with intravascular hemolysis are typically acute in onset and classically include icterus and red- to port-wine-colored urine. Extravascular hemolysis results from accelerated erythrocyte… Read More »

CaniLeish for Dogs

Scientific discussion This medicine is approved for use in the European Union CaniLeish is a lyophilisate and solvent for suspension for injection, intended for the active immunisation of Leishmania negative dogs from 6 months of age to reduce the risk to develop an active infection and clinical disease after contact with Leishmania infantum. The active… Read More »

Magnesium Abnormalities

1. What are the important functions of magnesium? Magnesium participates in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone, signal transduction, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, synthesis of nucleic acids, lymphocyte activation, and cytokine production. 2. Which cellular membrane-bound pumps utilize magnesium as a coenzyme? Sodium-potassium ATPase, calcium ATPase, and proton pumps. 3. How is magnesium distributed… Read More »

Small Intestine: Special Tests

In cases of malabsorption, intestinal biopsy is usually necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis. However, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency should be ruled out before biopsy, because signs of malabsorption are nonspecific. It is also well recognized that biopsies from up to 50% of patients are considered normal by light microscopy. Therefore, usually before biopsy, a number… Read More »

What is the best treatment for chemotherapy-induced renal failure?

The initial goals for treating drug- and tumor-related acute renal failure in dogs and cats are to discontinue all drugs that may be nephrotoxic, to document prerenal or postrenal abnormalities, and to initiate fluid therapy. The primary objectives of fluid therapy are to correct deficits such as dehydration and excesses such as volume overload, as… Read More »


Definition and cause Encephalitis is an inflammatory process of the brain that may or may not involve the meninges and / or the spinal cord. It is often caused by infections and immune-mediated processes, especially in pugs and Maltese dogs. Encephalitis occurs in both dogs and cats, and is commonly associated with the following causes:… Read More »