Tag Archives: Midazolam

Aspects Of Chemical Restraint

Chemical restraint is often necessary in reptile medicine to facilitate procedures from simply extracting the head of a leopard tortoise or box turtle, to enable a jugular blood sample to be performed, to coeliotomy procedures such as surgical correction of egg-binding. Before any anesthetic / sedative is administered, an assessment of the reptile patient’s health… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

Injectable agents Advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, avoiding problems related to breath-holding and prolonged induction, low cost and good availability. Disadvantages include a recovery often dependent on organ metabolism, difficulty reversing medications in emergency situations, prolonged recovery periods and necrosis of muscle cells at injection sites. Also, due to the renal portal… Read More »

Avian Anesthesia: Induction of anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, rapid induction, low cost and availability. Disadvantages include the fact that recovery is often dependent on organ metabolism, potentially difficult reversal of medications in emergency situations, prolonged and sometimes traumatic recovery periods, muscle necrosis at injection sites and lack of adequate muscle relaxation with… Read More »

Induction And Maintenance Of Anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of the injectable anesthetics are that they are often easy to administer, they frequently involve minimal stress and they prevent the problems encountered with breath-holding when using gaseous induction techniques. Disadvantages include the problem of reversal for some agents, the often varying responses depending on the individual animal and the frequent… Read More »


Although no members of this group are licensed for use in animals, they are used widely in veterinary anesthesia and intensive care. The benzodiazepines bind to specific receptors within the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in: (1) anti-anxiety effects (anxiolysis); (2) minimal effects on cardiovascular and respiratory system; (3) muscle relaxation; (4) anticonvulsant effects; (5)… Read More »

How are benzodiazepines used clinically?

Due to the potential for excitement, the benzodiazepines are infrequently used for premedication in healthy patients; their main indication being for epileptic animals or those scheduled for myelography, where some would consider acepromazine contra-indicated due to its effects on seizure threshold. Even in these two groups of animals, benzodiazepines are best used in combination with… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

General anesthesia may be induced by the use of inhalational agents or, more commonly, by the use of injectable drugs. The latter are usually administered by the intravenous route, but some will also work when given intramuscularly, e.g. ketamine. Other routes may occasionally be used (e.g. rectal, intraperitoneal, transmucosal) but, in common with all other… Read More »

Muscle Relaxants

Neuromuscular blocking drugs (‘muscle relaxants’) Although most of the currently available anaesthetic agents will provide a degree of muscle relaxation, in general most of them provide good muscle relaxation only when delivered in high concentrations. Unfortunately, these concentrations are associated with severe cardiopulmonary depression, making these agents unsuitable by themselves for situations where profound muscle… Read More »

Anaesthesia, General

The use of general anaesthetics to produce loss of consciousness and sensation for operations on animals dates back to 1847, when several veterinary surgeons used ether. Chloroform was also used in 1847. Both have now been largely superseded by more effective anaesthetic agents. A wide choice is now available. The selection, dosage and means of… Read More »