Tag Archives: Naloxone

Alfentanil HCL (Alfenta)

Opiate Anesthetic Adjunct Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Injectable, potent opiate that may be useful for adjunctive anesthesia, particularly in cats • Marginal veterinary experience & little published data available to draw conclusions on appropriate usage in veterinary species • Dose-related respiratory & CNS depression are the most likely adverse effects seen • Dose may… Read More »

Acute Blood Loss

The pathophysiologic effects of acute blood loss result from decreased circulating blood volume and associated hypovolemic shock. Hemorrhage becomes clinically significant when over 30% of the body’s blood is lost rapidly. Because blood volume represents approximately 8% of body weight, this loss constitutes 10.8 liters in a 450-kg horse. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of blood loss… Read More »

Induction And Maintenance Of Anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of the injectable anesthetics are that they are often easy to administer, they frequently involve minimal stress and they prevent the problems encountered with breath-holding when using gaseous induction techniques. Disadvantages include the problem of reversal for some agents, the often varying responses depending on the individual animal and the frequent… Read More »

Opioid Analgesics

Opioid analgesics (narcotic analgesics) produce their pharmacological effects by binding to specific opioid receptors, located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of structurally different receptors have been identified, the most important appear to be the μ (mu), δ (delta) and κ (kappa) receptors, more recently renamed OP3, OP1 and OP2 receptors,… Read More »

How are benzodiazepines used clinically?

Due to the potential for excitement, the benzodiazepines are infrequently used for premedication in healthy patients; their main indication being for epileptic animals or those scheduled for myelography, where some would consider acepromazine contra-indicated due to its effects on seizure threshold. Even in these two groups of animals, benzodiazepines are best used in combination with… Read More »

Codeine Phosphate

Chemistry A phenanthrene-derivative opiate agonist, codeine is available as the base and three separate salts. Codeine base is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. Codeine phosphate occurs as fine, white, needle-like crystals or white, crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water. Codeine sulfate’s appearance is similar to codeine phosphate, but it… Read More »


Chemistry A centrally-acting emetic, apomorphine occurs as a white powder or minute, white or grayish-white crystals and is sparingly soluble in water or alcohol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Apomorphine soluble tablets should be stored in tight containers at room temperature (15-30°C) and be protected from light. Upon exposure to light and air, apomorphine gradually… Read More »