Tag Archives: Nitrofurantoin

Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B Lipid-Based (Abelcet, Fungizone)

Antifungal Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Systemic antifungal used for serious mycotic infections • Must be administered IV • Nephrotoxicity is biggest concern, particularly with the deoxycholate form; newer lipid based products are less nephrotoxic & penetrate into tissues better, but are more expensive • Renal function monitoring essential • Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B… Read More »

Ammonium Chloride (Uroeze)

Acidifying Agent Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Urinary acidifier; treatment of metabolic alkalosis • Contraindicated in patients with hepatic failure or uremia • Potential adverse effects are primarily GI distress; IV use may lead to metabolic acidosis • May increase excretion of quinidine; decrease efficacy of erythromycin or aminoglycosides in urine What Is Ammonium Chloride… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »


Difloxacin Hydrochloride Chemistry – Storage – Stability – Compatibility A 4-fluroquinolone antibiotic, Difloxacin Hydrochloride commercially available tablets should be stored between 15-30°C (59-86°F) and protected from excessive heat. Pharmacology Like other drugs in its class, difloxacin is a concentration-dependent bactericidal agent. It acts by inhibiting bacterial DNA-gyrase (a type-II topoisomerase), thereby preventing DNA supercoiling and… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »

Antibacterial drugs

1 Beta-lactam antibacterials 2 Tetracyclines 3 Aminoglycosides 4 Macrolides and lincosamides 5 Chloramphenicols 6 Sulphonamides and potentiated sulphonamides 7 Nitrofurans 8 Nitroimidazoles 9 Quinolones 10 Pleuromutilins 11 Other antibacterial drugs 12 Compound antibacterial preparations Selection of a suitable drug Bacterial sensitivity. Antibacterial drugs are often used unnecessarily and sometimes (as in uncomplicated diarrhoea) when they… Read More »


Oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid, and nalidixic acid are 4-quinolone antibacterial agents. They are active against Gram-negative bacteria. However Gram-positive bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and obligate anaerobes are not susceptible. Fluoroquinolone derivatives such as difloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, ibafloxacin, marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, and sarafloxacin have a broader spectrum of activity than the parent compounds and are well distributed… Read More »


Chemistry A fluroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin HCl occurs as a faintly yellowish to yellow, crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water. Ciprofloxacin is related structurally to the veterinary-approved drug enrofloxacin (enrofloxacin has an additional ethyl group on the piperazinyl ring). Storage – Stability – Compatibility Unless otherwise directed by the manufacturer, ciprofloxacin tablets should be… Read More »