Tag Archives: Norepinephrine

Amitriptyline HCL (Elavil)

Tricyclic Behavior Modifier; Anti-Pruritic; Neuropathic Pain Modifier Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Tricyclic “antidepressant” used primarily for behavior disorders & neuropathic pain/pruritus in small animals • May reduce seizure thresholds in epileptic animals • Sedation & anticholinergic effects most likely adverse effects • Overdoses can be very serious in both animals & humans What Is… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »

Acepromazine Maleate (PromAce, Aceproject)

Phenothiazine Sedative / Tranquilizer Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Negligible analgesic effects • Dosage may need to be reduced in debilitated or geriatric animals, those with hepatic or cardiac disease, or when combined with other agents • Inject IV slowly; do not inject into arteries • Certain dog breeds (e.g., giant breeds, sight hounds) may… Read More »


Pharmacology Animal Studies In animals, amantadine hydrochloride caused several pharmacologic effects at relatively high doses. Signs of motor activity stimulation (increased spontaneous motor activity and antagonism of tetrabenazine- induced sedation) occurred in mice at oral doses of 35-40 mg/kg and above. A transient vasodepressor effect, cardiac arrhythmias and a weak ganglionic-blocking effect in dogs were… Read More »

Heart Failure: Treatment Strategies

Management of Acute Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure Dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or mitral regurgitation often present with acute onset of coughing, dyspnea, restlessness, orthopnea, and weakness subsequent to the development of severe pulmonary edema and/or low cardiac output. The immediate priorities in these patients are resolution of the pulmonary edema, maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion… Read More »

Progression Of Heart Failure

Traditionally heart failure has been perceived as a hemodynamic disorder that promotes weakness, the development of debilitating congestive signs, deterioration of cardiac function, and ultimately death. Although the initial cardiac insult varies, it was historically rationalized that ventricular remodeling and disease progression occur as consequences of the compensatory mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction and fluid retention.… Read More »

Potential therapeutic strategies

Aldosterone antagonists The neurohormonal hypothesis of heart failure gains further support from the fact that the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has proved efficacious in the management of severe heart failure in humans. Studies have recognized that small concentrations of aldosterone can stimulate cardiac fibroblast expression of type 1 and type III collagen, thereby promoting myocardial fibrosis.… Read More »

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

ACE Inhibitors Despite their symptomatic benefits, diuretics should not be used as monotherapy in the management of congestive heart failure because they further activate the renin-angiotensin system. Drugs designed to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme block the formation of AT II, promote an increase in the circulating levels of bradykinin, and may temporarily reduce circulating aldosterone levels.… Read More »

Future Prospects Currently Under Investigation

Medical Therapy Search for a Safe Positive Inotropic Agent A class of drugs currently receiving attention in the management of congestive heart failure is the calcium sensitizers. These agents can augment systolic performance by enhancing calcium binding to troponin C or by affecting the cross-bridge turnover kinetics without increasing cytosolic calcium levels. A potential drawback… Read More »