Tag Archives: Pentoxifylline

Diseases of the Ear

General Concepts Many different disease processes affect otic health and should be considered when evaluating a dog or cat with possible ear disease. Signalment may implicate certain diseases over others. A complete history begins with general questions about the animal’s health (e.g. appetite, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, diarrhea, water consumption) and questions pertaining to primary conditions… Read More »

Treatment of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage

A variety of approaches are used to treat or manage exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. The precise etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is still far from clear and it may well be multifactorial or exacerbated by other coexisting disease processes or by inherited factors. However, to date the number of treatments shown under close scientific scrutiny in… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »

Placental Hydrops

Hydrops is a rare condition in the mare, with hydroallantois occurring more commonly than hydramnios. Hydroallantois causes rapid abdominal enlargement during the last trimester of pregnancy (), and a sudden increase in the volume of allantoic fluid during a period of 10 to 14 days. The pathophysiology of hydroallantois in the mare remains unknown. Some… Read More »


The equine placenta consists of the allantochorion, the allantoamnion, and the umbilical cord. The chorionic portion of the allantochorion is attached to the endometrium by microcotyledons that are present throughout the uterus, with the exception of a small area at the internal os of the cervix called the cervical star. The allantochorion supports the fetus… Read More »

Treatment of Pastern Dermatitis

The appropriate therapy obviously involves identification of the predisposing, perpetuating, and primary factors. In general, avoiding pastures/paddocks with mud, water, or sand may minimize predisposing factors. Keeping patients stalled during wet weather and until morning dew has dried is often rewarding. Use of alternate sources of bedding may be beneficial because the chemicals in treated… Read More »