Tag Archives: Phenobarbital

Diseases of the Nose and Nasal Sinuses

Functional Considerations Functional Anatomy The nose has four main functions: (1) to provide a portal through which air can flow to reach the alveoli, (2) to modify or regulate the flow of air, (3) to facilitate water and heat exchange (e.g. to condition the inspired air), and (4) to pass inspired air over the olfactory… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »

Fractured Ribs

Fractured ribs most commonly are observed in neonates in conjunction with birth trauma. Rib fractures in older individuals most often result from collisions or kicks or falls. Birth trauma is the most common cause of rib fracture, and most neonates with fractures do not require medical or surgical intervention. However, rib fracture can cause life-threatening… Read More »

Portosystemic Shunts

1. What is a portosystemic shunt? A portosystemic shunt is an abnormal vessel that connects the portal vein to a systemic vein. The most common locations for portosystemic shunts are a patent ductus venosus or a connection between the portal vein and caudal vena cava or azygous vein. Single extraheptic shunts are most common in… Read More »


Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »


Chemistry A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen agent, diethylstilbestrol occurs as an odorless, white, crystalline powder with a melting range of 169°-175°C. It is practically insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol or fatty oils. Diethylstilbestrol is also known as DES or Stilbestrol. Storage – Stability – Compatibility All commercially available Diethylstilbestrol tablets (plain tablets, enteric-coated tablets) should… Read More »


1. What is a seizure? A seizure is a paroxysmal, transitory disturbance of brain function that has sudden onset, ceases spontaneously, and is likely to recur. Although most veterinarians call the resulting effects (e.g., jerky movements, staring) a “seizure,” the seizure is the neuronal event itself. The observable manifestation is called “seizure activity.” 2. Why… Read More »

Granulamatous Meningoencephalitis

GME – Granulamatous Meningoencephalitis / Peripheral Neuropathies Definition and cause Peripheral neuropathies may represent numerous specific diagnoses. Many are inherited and have no successful treatment. When diagnosing such conditions it is helpful to divide them into categories of disease, including degenerative, genetic, idiopathic, inflammatory-noninfectious, inflammatory-infectious, metabolic, neoplasia, trauma, and vascular. Each particular case has a… Read More »