Tag Archives: Phenylbutazone

Therapy Of Thromboembolic Disease

The management of primary diseases resulting in the development of thromboembolism is discussed in related posts throughout this textbook. Therapy of thromboembolism should be directed toward the underlying disorder whenever possible. Therapeutic strategies for managing thromboembolism include short-term systemic anticoagulation and fibrinolysis followed by long-term antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of rethrombosis.… Read More »


Thoracic Ultrasonography Thoracic ultrasonography currently is regarded as the preferred method to diagnose pleuropneumonia in the horse. Although the value of the art of thoracic auscultation and percussion should not be undermined, clinicians managing horses with thoracic disease recognize the limitations of these tools. With the widespread use of thoracic ultrasound, the equine practitioner currently… Read More »

Treatment of Arytenoid Chondrosis

Medical Treatment of Arytenoid Chondrosis Acute inflammation associated with an arytenoid chondrosis can be treated aggressively with intravenous (IV) antimicrobials and antiinflammatory drugs, and may not require surgical intervention. Because it is difficult to get a bacterial culture to direct treatment, broad-spectrum antimicrobials are used. Potassium penicillin (22,000 IU/kg q6h), gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg q24h), phenylbutazone… Read More »

Axial Deviation of the Aryepiglottic Folds

Axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds () has been recognized as a cause of dynamic upper respiratory obstruction in horses since the first use of high-speed treadmill exercise testing to evaluate poor performance. The membranous portions of the aryepiglottic folds, which extend from the abaxial margin of the epiglottis to the corniculate processes at the… Read More »

Treatment of Vasculitis

Treatment of purpura hemorrhagica and similar idiopathic vasculitides consists of the following: (1) removing the antigenic stimulus; (2) suppressing the immune response; (3) reducing vessel wall inflammation; and (4) providing supportive care. Any drugs given when the clinical signs occurred should be discontinued, or, if continued medication is necessary, an alternate drug should be chosen… Read More »

Acquired Coagulation Disorders

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation () is the most common hemostatic dysfunction in the horse. disseminated intravascular coagulation is an acquired process in which activation of coagulation causes widespread fibrin deposition in the microcirculation resulting in ischemic damage to tissues. Hemorrhagic diathesis occurs as a result of consumption of procoagulants or hyperactivity of fibrinolysis.… Read More »

Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia () results from cross-reacting antibodies that induce enhanced red blood cell removal. Autoimmune (primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia) hemolysis results from loss of self-tolerance and is relatively rare in horses. Most commonly, hemolysis results from adherence of cross-reacting antibodies to erythrocyte surface antigens (secondary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). The presence of these molecules on… Read More »

Anemia Due To Bone Marrow Aplasia Or Myelopthisis

Aplastic anemia results from congenital or acquired developmental failure of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. In other species, acquired aplastic anemia has been associated with bacterial and viral infections, chronic renal or hepatic failure, irradiation therapy, and drug administration, but the majority of cases are considered idiopathic. Until recently, aplastic anemia had only… Read More »

Perineal Lacerations

Perineal lacerations occur during unassisted foaling, most commonly in primiparous mares. Lacerations are caused by a combination of foal limb malpositioning and the violent, unpredictable expulsive efforts that accompany equine parturition. The foal’s hooves can engage the roof of the vestibule during forceful contractions and may lacerate the dorsal wall of the vestibule. The resulting… Read More »