Tag Archives: Praziquantel

Parasites of the Liver

Trematodes FASCIOLA HEPATICA • Worldwide distribution in ruminants, pigs, and horses; occasionally in humans; distribution in North America centers on the Gulf Coast/southeastern states, Pacific Northwest (including Montana), and eastern Canada; highly significant to veterinary medicine; low significance to public health. • Common name: liver fluke. Life Cycle • Indirect. • Intermediate host: lymnaeid snails;… Read More »


Trichuris Cause of Trichuris Trichuris vulpis is perhaps one of the most common causes of chronic large bowel diarrhea in dogs. Cats are occasionally infected with Trichuris serrata and Trichuris campanula. Clinical signs in Trictouro-infected dogs and cats may vary from asymptomatic infections to mild intermittent episodes of mucousy feces to acute-onset bloody diarrhea with… Read More »


Cause of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be defined using clinical, histologic, immunologic, pathophysiologic, and genetic criteria. Clinical criteria Inflammatory bowel disease has been defined clinically as a spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders of an unknown cause that is associated with chronic inflammation of the stomach, intestine, or colon. A clinical diagnosis of… Read More »

Small Intestinal Disease

Signs Diarrhea Diarrhea is an increase in fecal mass caused by an increase in fecal water and / or solid content. It is accompanied by an increase in frequency and / or fluidity and / or volume of feces. Yet it must be remembered that the absence of recognizable diarrhea does not preclude the possibility… Read More »


Helminthic infestation is common in dogs and cats. Some species are pathogenic in large numbers, and others are nonpathogenic. Roundworm Ascarids Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina are found in dogs, and Toxocara can and Toxascaris leonina are found in cats. T. canis can be transmitted across the placenta and T. canis and T. cati through… Read More »


Coccidia Isospora spp. hospora spp. are the most common coccidial parasites of dogs (Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis) and cats (Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta). Transmission occurs by ingestion of ova or paratenic hosts. Sporozoites are liberated in the small intestine and enter cells to begin development. The prepatent period ranges from 4 to 11 days, depending… Read More »

Chronic Enteropathies

Chronic Idiopathic Enteropathies Chronic enteropathies have historically been defined by histologic description of the tissue, which provides little information as to the nature of the intestinal dysfunction or its etiology. Furthermore, tissue samples collected from many cases have no obvious morphologic changes. In the future, new methods of investigation may better characterize functional and immunologic… Read More »


Tapeworms are considered segmented flatworms, belonging to a class of organisms called Cestoda. One important characteristic of this class is that all utilize intermediate hosts in their transmission cycle. Intermediate hosts can include rodents, fleas, and other insects, rabbits, sheep, swine, cattle, and in some instances, even humans! Tapeworm segments containing eggs are shed in… Read More »