Tag Archives: Propofol

Urine Collection Techniques

Urine can be removed from the bladder by one of four methods: (1) voided (the “free catch”), (2) manual compression of the urinary bladder (expressing the bladder), (3) catheterization, or (4) cystocentesis. Voiding For routine urinalysis, collection of urine by voiding (micturition) is satisfactory. The major disadvantage is risk of contamination of the sample with… Read More »

Diseases of the Throat: Diagnosis

Diagnostic Imaging Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographic views of both the skull and cervical areas are indicated. Radiopaque foreign bodies can be identified that may be missed on laryngoscopy and pharyngoscopy (e.g. sewing needle embedded in soft tissues). Radiographs are also useful in identifying bony changes associated with chronic inflammation or neoplasia, identifying clues of unreported… Read More »

Alfentanil HCL (Alfenta)

Opiate Anesthetic Adjunct Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Injectable, potent opiate that may be useful for adjunctive anesthesia, particularly in cats • Marginal veterinary experience & little published data available to draw conclusions on appropriate usage in veterinary species • Dose-related respiratory & CNS depression are the most likely adverse effects seen • Dose may… Read More »

Aspects Of Chemical Restraint

Chemical restraint is often necessary in reptile medicine to facilitate procedures from simply extracting the head of a leopard tortoise or box turtle, to enable a jugular blood sample to be performed, to coeliotomy procedures such as surgical correction of egg-binding. Before any anesthetic / sedative is administered, an assessment of the reptile patient’s health… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

Injectable agents Advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, avoiding problems related to breath-holding and prolonged induction, low cost and good availability. Disadvantages include a recovery often dependent on organ metabolism, difficulty reversing medications in emergency situations, prolonged recovery periods and necrosis of muscle cells at injection sites. Also, due to the renal portal… Read More »

Maintaining Anesthesia

Inhalational anesthesia is becoming the main method of anesthetising reptiles for prolonged procedures and as described above offers many benefits. These are enhanced still further if the reptile is intubated allowing the anesthetic to be delivered in a controlled manner. Intubation The glottis, which acts as the entrance to the trachea, is relatively rostral in… Read More »

Portosystemic Shunts

1. What is a portosystemic shunt? A portosystemic shunt is an abnormal vessel that connects the portal vein to a systemic vein. The most common locations for portosystemic shunts are a patent ductus venosus or a connection between the portal vein and caudal vena cava or azygous vein. Single extraheptic shunts are most common in… Read More »

Avian Anesthesia: Induction of anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of injectable anesthetics include ease of administration, rapid induction, low cost and availability. Disadvantages include the fact that recovery is often dependent on organ metabolism, potentially difficult reversal of medications in emergency situations, prolonged and sometimes traumatic recovery periods, muscle necrosis at injection sites and lack of adequate muscle relaxation with… Read More »

Induction And Maintenance Of Anesthesia

Injectable agents The advantages of the injectable anesthetics are that they are often easy to administer, they frequently involve minimal stress and they prevent the problems encountered with breath-holding when using gaseous induction techniques. Disadvantages include the problem of reversal for some agents, the often varying responses depending on the individual animal and the frequent… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

General anesthesia may be induced by the use of inhalational agents or, more commonly, by the use of injectable drugs. The latter are usually administered by the intravenous route, but some will also work when given intramuscularly, e.g. ketamine. Other routes may occasionally be used (e.g. rectal, intraperitoneal, transmucosal) but, in common with all other… Read More »