Tag Archives: Propranolol

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the cat

The incidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is higher in the cat than it is in the dog. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be classified as primary or secondary. The aetiology of the primary or idiopathic form is unknown. A recent survey of 74 cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showed no apparent breed predilection ; others have suggested that… Read More »

Supraventricutar tachydysrhythmias

Sinus tachycardia (heart rates greater than 160-180 bpm in the dog and 240 bpm in the cat respectively) can occur in response to pain> fright, fever, anaemia, circulatory shock and hyperthyroidism, all states where sympathetic tone to the heart increases and as a result, the rate of impulse generation and conduction is enhanced. Drugs such… Read More »

Ventricular arrhythmias

Site shows some of the common clinical situations associated with ventricular arrhythmias. As can be seen, many cardiac and extracardiac conditions which compromise oxygen supply to cardiac muscle leading to ischaemia, or which increase sympathetic stimulation to the heart or generate factors which are toxic to the myocardium, commonly give rise to ventricular arrhythmias. If… Read More »

Drugs used to treat ventricular arrhythmias

The drugs used most commonly in veterinary practice to treat ventricular arrhythmias are the Class I drugs (local anaesthetic agents) and the Class II drugs (beta-adrenoceptor antagonists). Site shows the ways in which these drugs interfere with the pathological mechanisms involved in arrhythmogenesis. Since the mechanisms involved in the generation of most ventricular arrhythmias cannot… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Tetralogy of Fallot

The defining anatomic features of tetralogy of Fallot include right ventricular outflow obstruction (pulmonic stenosis), secondary right ventricular hypertrophy, a subaortic ventricular septal defect, and a rightward-positioned aorta. Pulmonic stenosis that occurs in combination with an isolated ventricular septal defect produces similar findings, but the infundibular septum is not malaligned, the aorta is normal in… Read More »


Acepromazine Maleate (Promace) Chemical Compound: 2-Acetyl-10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) phenothiazine hydrogen maleate DEA Classification: Not a controlled substance Preparations: Generally available in 5-, 10-, 25-mg tablets and 10 mg/ml injectable forms Clinical Pharmacology Acepromazine is a low-potency phenothiazine neuroleptic agent that blocks postsynaptic dopamine receptors and increases the turnover rate of dopamine. Acepromazine has a depressant effect on… Read More »

Progression Of Heart Failure

Traditionally heart failure has been perceived as a hemodynamic disorder that promotes weakness, the development of debilitating congestive signs, deterioration of cardiac function, and ultimately death. Although the initial cardiac insult varies, it was historically rationalized that ventricular remodeling and disease progression occur as consequences of the compensatory mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction and fluid retention.… Read More »


Diltiazem Hydrochloride Chemistry A calcium channel blocker, diltiazem HCl occurs as a white to off-white crystalline powder having a bitter taste. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Potencies may be expressed in terms of base (active moiety) and the salt. Dosages are generally expressed in terms of the salt. Diltiazem is also known as… Read More »

Extravasation of Hemotherapeutic Drugs

1. What chemotherapy agents may cause a perivascular reaction or slough and is this truly an oncologic emergency? Many chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce significant tissue injury after extravasation. Some are severe, irreversible vesicants; others are irritants. Immediate treatment of this condition can result in reduction of dramatic morbidity and in some cases, mortality.… Read More »