Tag Archives: Quinidine

Positive inotropic agents

An ideal positive inotropic agent should increase the force of contraction of cardiac muscle at a given degree of end-diastolic stretch without reducing efficiency of energy use, increasing the heart rate or predisposing to cardiac arrhythmias. The drug should also lack vasoconstrictor action on peripheral blood vessels. Drugs which enhance myocardial intracellular cyclic AMP concentration… Read More »

Supraventricutar tachydysrhythmias

Sinus tachycardia (heart rates greater than 160-180 bpm in the dog and 240 bpm in the cat respectively) can occur in response to pain> fright, fever, anaemia, circulatory shock and hyperthyroidism, all states where sympathetic tone to the heart increases and as a result, the rate of impulse generation and conduction is enhanced. Drugs such… Read More »

Ammonium Chloride (Uroeze)

Acidifying Agent Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Urinary acidifier; treatment of metabolic alkalosis • Contraindicated in patients with hepatic failure or uremia • Potential adverse effects are primarily GI distress; IV use may lead to metabolic acidosis • May increase excretion of quinidine; decrease efficacy of erythromycin or aminoglycosides in urine What Is Ammonium Chloride… Read More »

Amiodarone HCL (Cordarone, Pacerone)

Class III Antiarrhythmic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Antidysrhythmic agent that can be used in dogs for arrhythmias associated with left ventricular dysfunction or to convert atrial fib into sinus rhythm; very limited experience warrants cautious use • May be useful in horses to convert atrial fib or V tach into sinus rhythm • Contraindicated… Read More »

Positive Inotropes

Agents capable of increasing cardiac contractility can improve a patient’s strength and exercise capacity, thereby potentially enhancing the pet’s quality of life. Ideally, these compounds would concurrently promote mortality benefits by improving cardiac efficiency and limiting the activation of endogenous compensatory mechanisms (with their detrimental long-term consequences). Unfortunately, to date most of the potent agents… Read More »

Diltiazem

Diltiazem Hydrochloride Chemistry A calcium channel blocker, diltiazem HCl occurs as a white to off-white crystalline powder having a bitter taste. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Potencies may be expressed in terms of base (active moiety) and the salt. Dosages are generally expressed in terms of the salt. Diltiazem is also known as… Read More »

Heart Diseases

As in man, heart troubles are very much more common in old age. However, even young animals may suffer from faulty heart action due to congenital defects. Signs Irregularity in the heartbeat, some difficulty in breathing without obvious changes in the lungs or pleura, breathlessness when the animals are compelled to exert themselves, a tendency… Read More »

Citrate Salts

POTASSIUM CITRATE SODIUM CITRATE & CITRIC ACID Chemistry Generally used as alkalinizing agents, citric acid and citrate salts are available in several commercially available dosage forms. Citric acid occurs as an odorless or practically odorless, colorless, translucent crystal with a strong acidic taste. It is very soluble in water. Potassium citrate occurs as odorless, transparent… Read More »

CHLOROTHIAZIDE

CHLOROTHIAZIDE SODIUM Chemistry A thiazide diuretic structurally related to the sulfonamides, chlorothiazide occurs as a white or practically white, odorless, slightly bitter-tasting, crystalline powder. It has a melting point of approximately 355° C and pKas of 6.7 and 9.5. It is very slightly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. The pH of the… Read More »

AMIODARONE HCL

Chemistry An iodinated benzofuran, amiodarone is unique structurally and pharmacologically from other antiarrhythmic agents. It occurs as a white to cream colored lipophilic powder having a pKa of approximately 6.6. Amiodarone 200 mg tablets each contain approximately 75 mg of iodine. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Tablets should be stored in tight containers, at room… Read More »