Tag Archives: Ranitidine

Esophageal Disorders

1. What is the most common clinical sign of an esophageal disorder? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation refers to passive, retrograde movement of ingested material to a level proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter; usually this material has not reached the stomach. In most cases, regurgitation results from abnormal… Read More »


Diltiazem Hydrochloride Chemistry A calcium channel blocker, diltiazem HCl occurs as a white to off-white crystalline powder having a bitter taste. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Potencies may be expressed in terms of base (active moiety) and the salt. Dosages are generally expressed in terms of the salt. Diltiazem is also known as… Read More »

Acute Pancreatitis

1. Compare acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute Chronic Acute inflammatory condition Long-standing inflammation No evidence of fibrosis Fibrosis and loss of acinar cell mass Mild or severe Mild or severe Reversible histopathologic changes Irreversible histopathologic changes   2. Describe the pathophysiology of severe pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis is characterized by extensive pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ… Read More »


Constipation; Cause The etiopathogenesis of idiopathic megacolon is still incompletely understood. Several reviews have emphasized the importance of considering an extensive list of differential diagnoses (e. g., neuromuscular, mechanical, inflammatory, metabolic and endocrine, pharmacologic, environmental, and behavioral causes) for the obstipated cat (Box Differential Diagnosis of Constipation in the Cat). A review of published cases… Read More »


Gastric Erosion And Ulceration Gastric erosions and ulcers are associated with a number of primary gastric and non-gastric disorders (Table Association of Gastric Ulceration and Erosion with Specific Diseases). Clinical signs range in duration and severity, from acute to chronic and mild to life threatening. The pathomechanisms underlying gastric damage can be broadly attributed to… Read More »

Chronic Gastritis

Gastritis is a common finding in dogs, with 35% of dogs investigated for chronic vomiting and 26% to 48% of asymptomatic dogs affected. The prevalence in cats has not been determined. The diagnosis of chronic gastritis is based on the histologic examination of gastric biopsies and it is usually subclassified according to histopathological changes and… Read More »

Delayed Gastric Emptying

Delayed Gastric Emptying And Motility Disorders Disorders of gastric motility can disrupt the storage and mixing of food and its expulsion into the duodenum. Normal gastric motility is the result of the organized interaction of smooth muscle with neural and hormonal stimuli. Delayed gastric emptying is the most commonly recognized manifestation of gastric motility disorders.… Read More »


Esophagitis denotes acute or chronic inflammation of the esophageal mucosa which may extend to the underlying muscularis. It may be caused by chemical injury from ingested substances (corrosives, pill or capsule retention), gastroesophageal reflux (secondary to general anesthesia, hiatal defects, persistent vomiting, malpositioned nasoesophageal or pharyngostomy tubes), or esophageal foreign bodies. Mucosal damage caused by… Read More »


Megaesophacus And Esophageal Hypomotility Megaesophagus is a disorder characterized by diffuse esophageal dilation and aperistalsis. This syndrome may occur as a congenital idiopathic disorder (uncommon), or it may manifest in adult animals as an idiopathic (common) or acquired lesion. A familial predisposition for congenital megaesophagus has been suggested for the Irish setter, Great Dane, German… Read More »