Tag Archives: Sucralfate

Amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxi-Tabs)

Aminopenicillin Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bactericidal aminopenicillin with same spectrum as ampicillin (ineffective against bacteria that produce beta-lactamase) • Most likely adverse effects are GI-related, but hypersensitivity & other adverse effects rarely occur • Available in oral & parenteral dosage forms in USA What Is Amoxicillin Used For? The aminopenicillins have been used for… Read More »

Esophageal Disorders

1. What is the most common clinical sign of an esophageal disorder? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation refers to passive, retrograde movement of ingested material to a level proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter; usually this material has not reached the stomach. In most cases, regurgitation results from abnormal… Read More »


Difloxacin Hydrochloride Chemistry – Storage – Stability – Compatibility A 4-fluroquinolone antibiotic, Difloxacin Hydrochloride commercially available tablets should be stored between 15-30°C (59-86°F) and protected from excessive heat. Pharmacology Like other drugs in its class, difloxacin is a concentration-dependent bactericidal agent. It acts by inhibiting bacterial DNA-gyrase (a type-II topoisomerase), thereby preventing DNA supercoiling and… Read More »


Chemistry A vitamin D analog, dihydrotachysterol (DHT) occurs as odorless, colorless or white crystals, or crystalline white powder. It is practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in vegetable oils, and soluble in alcohol. Dihydrotachysterol may also be known as dihydrotachysterol, dichysterol, or dihydrotachysterol- Storage – Stability – Compatibility All dihydrotachysterol products should be stored at… Read More »


1. Define hypoadrenocorticism. Hypoadrenocorticism is the lack of production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal glands. It may be due to a pathologic process that affects either the adrenal glands directly (primary hypoadrenocorticism) or the production or release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) by the hypothalamus or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary (secondary hypoadrenocorticism).… Read More »

Recovery And Analgesia

Recovery involves ventilation with 100% oxygen. The endotracheal tube is removed once the bird will no longer tolerate its presence. Regardless of the anesthetic used, practically all patients will appear disorientated and will attempt to flap their wings during recovery. Every attempt should be made to gently constrain them (without restricting respiration) to ensure that… Read More »

Acute Gastritis

Acute gastritis is the term applied to the syndrome of vomiting of sudden onset presumed to be due to a gastric mucosal insult or inflammation (Causes of Acute Gastritis). In most patients the cause is inferred from the history, such as dietary indiscretion, the diagnosis is rarely confirmed by biopsy, and treatment is symptomatic and… Read More »


Gastric Erosion And Ulceration Gastric erosions and ulcers are associated with a number of primary gastric and non-gastric disorders (Table Association of Gastric Ulceration and Erosion with Specific Diseases). Clinical signs range in duration and severity, from acute to chronic and mild to life threatening. The pathomechanisms underlying gastric damage can be broadly attributed to… Read More »

Esophageal Stricture

Esophageal stricture is an abnormal circumferential narrowing of the esophageal lumen that occurs secondary to severe esophagitis. After mucosal injury, inflammation extends beyond the mucosa into the muscular layer and heals by fibrosis. Fibrotic changes (maturation with contraction) in the esophageal wall cause luminal narrowing. Strictures may occur at any point along the length of… Read More »


Megaesophacus And Esophageal Hypomotility Megaesophagus is a disorder characterized by diffuse esophageal dilation and aperistalsis. This syndrome may occur as a congenital idiopathic disorder (uncommon), or it may manifest in adult animals as an idiopathic (common) or acquired lesion. A familial predisposition for congenital megaesophagus has been suggested for the Irish setter, Great Dane, German… Read More »