Tag Archives: Theophylline

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Treatment And Prevention of Feline Heartworm Disease

The question arises as to whether heartworm prophylaxis is warranted for cats because they are not the natural host and because the incidence is low. Necropsy studies of feline heartworm infection in the Southeast have yielded a prevalence of 2.5% to 14%, with a median of 7%. When considering the question of institution of prophylaxis,… Read More »

Management of Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency

Ideally, therapy of chronic mitral valve insufficiency would halt the progression of the valvular degeneration. Improvement of valvular function by surgical repair or valve replacement would likewise stop further deterioration. However, no therapy is currently known to inhibit or prevent the valvular degeneration, and surgery is usually not technically, economically, or ethically possible in canine… Read More »

Interstitial Pneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia is an uncommon cause of acute or chronic disorders of the lower respiratory tract of horses. However, because of the severity of the process, recognition and definitive diagnosis of this entity are important as early as possible in its clinical course. The term interstitial pneumonia defines a number of diseases that are chronic… Read More »

Bronchodilators Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves

Bronchodilators are used in heaves-affected horses to relieve the obstruction of the small airways caused by airway smooth muscle contraction (see Table Medications Recommended for the Treatment of Heaves). Bronchodilator administration should be combined with strict environmental dust control and corticosteroid administration because inflammation of the lower airways may progress despite the improvement of clinical… Read More »


Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »


Difloxacin Hydrochloride Chemistry – Storage – Stability – Compatibility A 4-fluroquinolone antibiotic, Difloxacin Hydrochloride commercially available tablets should be stored between 15-30°C (59-86°F) and protected from excessive heat. Pharmacology Like other drugs in its class, difloxacin is a concentration-dependent bactericidal agent. It acts by inhibiting bacterial DNA-gyrase (a type-II topoisomerase), thereby preventing DNA supercoiling and… Read More »

Macrolides and lincosamides

The macrolides include erythromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while clindamycin, pirlimycin and lincomycin belong to the related lincosamide group. They are usually bacteriostatic in action. All are basic compounds that are well absorbed following oral administration and inactivated by hepatic metabolism. Due to their basic nature they are concentrated by the ‘ion-trap’ in acidic… Read More »


Oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid, and nalidixic acid are 4-quinolone antibacterial agents. They are active against Gram-negative bacteria. However Gram-positive bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and obligate anaerobes are not susceptible. Fluoroquinolone derivatives such as difloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, ibafloxacin, marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, and sarafloxacin have a broader spectrum of activity than the parent compounds and are well distributed… Read More »

Heart Diseases

As in man, heart troubles are very much more common in old age. However, even young animals may suffer from faulty heart action due to congenital defects. Signs Irregularity in the heartbeat, some difficulty in breathing without obvious changes in the lungs or pleura, breathlessness when the animals are compelled to exert themselves, a tendency… Read More »