Tag Archives: Thiopental

Diseases of the Throat: Diagnosis

Diagnostic Imaging Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographic views of both the skull and cervical areas are indicated. Radiopaque foreign bodies can be identified that may be missed on laryngoscopy and pharyngoscopy (e.g. sewing needle embedded in soft tissues). Radiographs are also useful in identifying bony changes associated with chronic inflammation or neoplasia, identifying clues of unreported… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »


Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »

Induction of Anesthesia

General anesthesia may be induced by the use of inhalational agents or, more commonly, by the use of injectable drugs. The latter are usually administered by the intravenous route, but some will also work when given intramuscularly, e.g. ketamine. Other routes may occasionally be used (e.g. rectal, intraperitoneal, transmucosal) but, in common with all other… Read More »


Since prepared solutions of thiopental are relatively unstable, the drug is supplied as a yellow powder to be dissolved in sterile water for injection, forming a highly alkaline solution (pH >12). It is commonly formulated to a concentration of either 2.5% or 5% for small animal use. The more dilute solution is preferable, as the… Read More »


Alfaxalone/Alfadolone (‘Saffan’, Schering Plough Animal Health) ‘Saffan’ was a combination of two steroids, alfaxalone (alphaxalone) and alfadolone (alphadolone), formulated in Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil), which, until recently, was licensed in the UK for cats for intravenous induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia. The drug was non-irritant perivenously, and, indeed, could be given by the intramuscular… Read More »


Propofol belongs to a class of drugs known as the hindered phenols, and is unrelated to all other anesthetic agents. The drug is poorly soluble in water and is supplied as an emulsion containing 10 mg propofol, 100 mg soyabean oil, 22.5 mg glycerol and 12 mg purified egg phosphatide per ml. This emulsion contains… Read More »


Ketamine is a cyclohexamine derivative presented as a clear solution in multi-dose vials, at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. The solution has a pH of around 4 and can cause pain on injection when used by extravascular routes. • Central nervous system: Ketamine produces a state of dissociative anesthesia (superficial sleep combined with profound analgesia… Read More »

Sulphonamides and potentiated sulphonamides

Sulphonamides The sulphonamides form an extensive series of drugs that differ more in their physicochemical characteristics, and hence in mode of administration and pharmacokinetics, than they do in their antibacterial activity. They act by competing with tissue factors, notably p-aminobenzoic acid, and are therefore inactive in the presence of necrotic tissue. They are bacteriostatic to… Read More »