Tag Archives: Verapamil

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the cat

The incidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is higher in the cat than it is in the dog. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be classified as primary or secondary. The aetiology of the primary or idiopathic form is unknown. A recent survey of 74 cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showed no apparent breed predilection ; others have suggested that… Read More »

Hypertension

The methods for measuring blood pressure and reported normal blood pressure measurements in small animals are extremely variable. Blood pressure should be measured with the animal unsedated, relaxed and minimally restrained. Heart rate should be within normal resting limits (an increased heart rate tends to increase the diastolic blood pressure measurement). Direct measurements can be… Read More »

Positive inotropic agents

An ideal positive inotropic agent should increase the force of contraction of cardiac muscle at a given degree of end-diastolic stretch without reducing efficiency of energy use, increasing the heart rate or predisposing to cardiac arrhythmias. The drug should also lack vasoconstrictor action on peripheral blood vessels. Drugs which enhance myocardial intracellular cyclic AMP concentration… Read More »

Supraventricutar tachydysrhythmias

Sinus tachycardia (heart rates greater than 160-180 bpm in the dog and 240 bpm in the cat respectively) can occur in response to pain> fright, fever, anaemia, circulatory shock and hyperthyroidism, all states where sympathetic tone to the heart increases and as a result, the rate of impulse generation and conduction is enhanced. Drugs such… Read More »

Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B Lipid-Based (Abelcet, Fungizone)

Antifungal Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Systemic antifungal used for serious mycotic infections • Must be administered IV • Nephrotoxicity is biggest concern, particularly with the deoxycholate form; newer lipid based products are less nephrotoxic & penetrate into tissues better, but are more expensive • Renal function monitoring essential • Amphotericin B Desoxycholate, Amphotericin B… Read More »

Amiodarone HCL (Cordarone, Pacerone)

Class III Antiarrhythmic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Antidysrhythmic agent that can be used in dogs for arrhythmias associated with left ventricular dysfunction or to convert atrial fib into sinus rhythm; very limited experience warrants cautious use • May be useful in horses to convert atrial fib or V tach into sinus rhythm • Contraindicated… Read More »

Aminophylline Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Bronchodilator Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Bronchodilator drug with diuretic activity; used for bronchospasm & cardiogenic pulmonary edema • Narrow therapeutic index in humans, but dogs appear to be less susceptible to toxic effects at higher plasma levels • Therapeutic drug monitoring recommended • Many drug interactions What Is Aminophylline Theophylline Used For?… Read More »

Amikacin Sulfate (Amikin, Amiglyde-V)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Parenteral aminoglycoside antibiotic that has good activity against a variety of bacteria, predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacilli • Adverse Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscu-lar blockade • Cats may be more sensitive to toxic effects • Risk factors for toxicity: Preexisting renal disease, age (both neonatal & geriatric), fever, sepsis &… Read More »

Progression Of Heart Failure

Traditionally heart failure has been perceived as a hemodynamic disorder that promotes weakness, the development of debilitating congestive signs, deterioration of cardiac function, and ultimately death. Although the initial cardiac insult varies, it was historically rationalized that ventricular remodeling and disease progression occur as consequences of the compensatory mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction and fluid retention.… Read More »

Management of Refractory Congestive Heart Failure

Over rime, many patients become refractory to standard medical therapy as disease progression continues or if a concurrent systemic disease process develops that exerts detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system (e.g., hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, renal failure, systemic Hypertension, neoplasia, anemia, pneumonia, or pulmonary thromboembolism). Infrequent causes of an acute bout of decompensation include the development of… Read More »