Tag Archives: Vincristine


Lymphoma is the general term denoting malignant transformation of lymphoid cells, but it is often used in equine medicine in place of the term lymphosarcoma, which is specifically the malignant transformation of lymphoid cells into solid (or sarcomatous) tumors. Lymphoid leukemia (or “true” leukemia) denotes the malignant transformation of lymphoid cells within the bone marrow.… Read More »

Treatment of Thrombocytopenia

No treatment for primary bone marrow megakaryocyte hypoplasia exists. (Treatment for DIC is discussed in: “Hemostatic Disorders.”) Treatment for IMTP is similar to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Medication withdrawal should be implemented with adjustment of antibiotic or drug therapy to a molecularly dissimilar agent. Attempts should be made to identify and treat potential underlying diseases. In… Read More »

Treatment of Cutaneous Lymphosarcoma

Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay of treatment of cutaneous T cell-rich, B cell lymphoma. Tumor regression is typically noted following the systemic administration of dexamethasone (0.02-0.2 mg/kg IV, IM or PO q24h) or prednisolone (1-2 mg/kg PO q24h). In these authors’ experience, dexamethasone proves more effective than prednisolone in treating lymphosarcoma. Once cutaneous lesions have regressed… Read More »


Cause of Neoplasia In dogs, tumors of the large intestine are more common than tumors of the stomach and small intestine. The mean age of dogs affected with colonic neoplasia is variably reported between 7 and 11 years of age. Most colonic tumors of dogs are malignant and include the adenocarcinomas, lymphosarcomas, and gastrointestinal stromal… Read More »

Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, And Hypoproteinemia

1. Are transfusions essential in an emergency situation? Absolutely. Transfusions are frequently needed for veterinary patients as a result of various emergency situations, including blood loss, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), clinical syndromes associated with the hypocoagulable state of malignancy and other diseases, and other hematologic abnormalities. In general, transfusions and specific blood components should be… Read More »

Extravasation of Hemotherapeutic Drugs

1. What chemotherapy agents may cause a perivascular reaction or slough and is this truly an oncologic emergency? Many chemotherapeutic agents are known to induce significant tissue injury after extravasation. Some are severe, irreversible vesicants; others are irritants. Immediate treatment of this condition can result in reduction of dramatic morbidity and in some cases, mortality.… Read More »

Herbs for Cancer

Cancer biology is yet to be fully understood. Cellular mutation may occur as a result of free radical damage (with activation of oncogenes or suppression of tumor suppressor genes) and genetic susceptibility and toxicity (e.g., hepatopathogenic toxins). In traditional herbal medicine, cancer is nearly always viewed as a sign of systemic toxicity. However, immune dysregulation… Read More »

Granulamatous Meningoencephalitis

GME – Granulamatous Meningoencephalitis / Peripheral Neuropathies Definition and cause Peripheral neuropathies may represent numerous specific diagnoses. Many are inherited and have no successful treatment. When diagnosing such conditions it is helpful to divide them into categories of disease, including degenerative, genetic, idiopathic, inflammatory-noninfectious, inflammatory-infectious, metabolic, neoplasia, trauma, and vascular. Each particular case has a… Read More »


Chemistry A synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside antimetabolite, cytarabine occurs as an odorless, white to off-white, crystalline powder with a pKa of 4.35. It is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Cytarabine is also commonly known as ARA-C or Cytosine Arabinoside. It may also be known as 1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine or Arabinosylcytosine. Storage – Stability –… Read More »


Chemistry A nitrogen-mustard derivative, cyclophosphamide occurs as a white, crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. The commercially available injection has pH of 3 to 7.5. Cyclophosphamide may also be known as CPM, CTX or CYT. Storage – Stability – Compatibility Cyclophosphamide tablets and powder for injection should be stored at temperatures less… Read More »