Tag Archives: Vitamin C

Aminocaproic Acid (Amicar)

Fibrinolysis Inhibitor/Antiprotease Highlights Of Prescribing Information • May be useful for treating degenerative myelopathies in dogs; efficacy not well documented • Treatment may be very expensive, especially with large dogs • Contraindicated in DIC • Infrequently causes GI distress What Is Aminocaproic Acid Used For? Aminocaproic acid has been used as a treatment to degenerative… Read More »

Acetylcysteine (N-acetylcysteine, Mucomyst, NAC)

Antidote; Mucolytic Highlights Of Prescribing Information • Used primarily as a treatment for acetaminophen or phenol toxicity & for its mucolytic effect; used anecdotally for treating degenerative myelopathy • Also used as a topical ophthalmic () • Has caused hypersensitivity & bronchospasm when used in pulmonary tree • Administer via gastric- or duodenal tube for… Read More »


Chemistry An ethanolamine derivative antihistamine, dimenhydrinate contains approximately 54% diphenhydramine and 46% 8-chlorotheophylline. It occurs as an odorless, bitter and numbing-tasting, white crystalline powder with a melting range of 102°-107°C. Dimenhydrinate is slightly soluble in water and is freely soluble in propylene glycol or alcohol. The pH of the commercially available injection ranges from 6.4… Read More »

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

Normally the bacterial population of the small intestine is controlled by a number of mechanisms (see above). Bacterial overgrowth is the uncontrolled proliferation of these bacteria and, in humans, occurs secondary to a number of underlying disorders that interfere with the control mechanisms. Although the existence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in humans is not… Read More »


Mange (Demodectic / Sarcoptic) Definition and cause Demodex is a localized or generalized parasitic disease caused by Demodex spp. mites. The underlying cause is believed to be genetic or related to immune deficiency or imbalance. In cats it is most often associated with other systemic disease such as FIV. Sarcoptic mange is a highly pruritic… Read More »

Spinal Arthritis

Spinal Arthritis / Spondylosis Definition and cause Spinal arthritis / spondylosis is a degenerative condition of the bony spinal column with associated osteophytic activity between vertebrae. It occurs in both dogs and cats and is believed to have an inherited predisposition or be the result of continual localized trauma and secondary inflammation to the bony… Read More »


Definition and cause Osteochondrosis is a growth disturbance, often leading to an overproduction of cartilage. This thickened cartilage leads to degeneration and necrosis. Coupled with improper nutrition and trauma, this excessive cartilage can lead to ostechondritis dessecans in the shoulder, elbow, or stifle joint. In addition, it is believed that improper nutrition and trauma to… Read More »


Definition and cause Arthritis is a degenerative, progressive disease of the cartilage and synovial surface of the joint. Although arthritis is distinguished from immune-mediated arthritis because it is classified as non-inflammatory, inflammation is believed to be an important part of the initiation and ongoing breakdown of tissue in the joint. Arthritis in dogs and cats… Read More »

Tooth Extraction

Definition and cause Most common causes that necessitate tooth extraction are secondary to trauma or periodontal disease. Causes of periodontal disease include plaque, tartar, calculus buildup, and bacterial contamination. Underlying causes are related to genetic predisposition, age, and status of the immune system, as well as oral hygiene. Causes secondary to other disease such as… Read More »


Stomatitis / Periodontal Disease Definition and cause Stomatitis represents an inflammatory condition of the oral cavity, and occurs in both dogs and cats. Mucosal inflammation in stomatitis can be generalized or focal involving any region of the mouth. This is a descriptive diagnosis. Successful therapy depends upon an accurate diagnosis, which means that diagnostic processes… Read More »